Around 95 per cent of India’s trading by volume and 70 per cent by value is done via maritime transportation. According to a report of the National Transport Development Policy Committee, India’s cargo traffic handles by ports is expected to reach 1,695 million metric tonnes by 2021-22.
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Definition / Scope
Shipping industry refers to the industries that are concerned with transporting freight by ship. It is the least method of transporting bulk quantities of goods over long distances. Ports refer to an area that provides shelter for boats and vessel. It is a place for the loading and unloading of cargo. The different types of ports are as follows:
- Dry port: Dry ports are inland terminals that are connected to sea port by rail or road. It is useful in trade of importing and exporting cargo and relieving of congestion and work load at sea ports.
- Fishing port: The purposes for fishing ports are either recreational or commercial. The existence of this port depends upon the availability of fishes on particular ocean.
- Cargo port: These ports are also known as “bulk ports” or “break bulk ports”. These ports deals with either single product or multiple products like food grains, timber, machines and so on.
- Sea port: These ports are built on a sea location and used for commercial shipping activities. In order to store the shipment and maintain regular stocking, special warehouses are constructed in this port.
- Inland port: These ports are built on small water bodies like rivers or lakes and are used either for passenger purpose or cargo or both.
- Warm water port: Water does not freeze during winter time in warm water port. As this port operates all time of the year, these ports can be of great economic interest.