The demand for high-quality infant formula products that closely replicate the composition of breast milk is growing, and the worldwide infant formula ingredients market is growing rapidly. The market is expected to expand to $25.5 billion by 2025, up from $17.96 billion in 2020, with a 7.3% CAGR. Furthermore, the growing demand for organic and plant-based infant formulae from health-conscious customers propels the whole market forward, presenting lucrative growth opportunities throughout the non-allergenic and non-genetically modified organisms (GMO) plant protein components space.
- Definition / Scope
- Market Overview
- Key Metrics
- Market Risks
- Market Drivers
- Market Restraints
- Industry Challenges
- Technology Trends
- Post COVID-19 Recovery
- Market Size and Forecast
- Market Outlook
- Technology Roadmap
- Competitive Landscape
- Competitive Factors
- Key Market Players
- Strategic Conclusion
Definition / Scope
Infant formula is a liquid or powder product manufactured mostly from milk and milk protein products, or beans and bean protein products, that contains modest amounts of vitamins, minerals, and/or other nutrients and is designed to meet the nutritional needs of typical newborns aged 0 to 6 months.
Formula for older infants and young children is a liquid or powder product made primarily from milk and milk protein products, as well as beans and bean protein products, that contains moderate amounts of vitamins, minerals, and/or other substances to meet the nutritional needs of older infants and young children.
|Stage 1||0-6 Months||Infant Formula|
|Stage 2||6-12 Months||Older Infants Formula|
|Stage 3||12 – 36 Months||Young Children Formula|
The infant formula ingredients market is expected to be worth USD 17.96 billion in 2020 and USD 25.5 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 7.3 %.
The increased number of instances of COVID–19 is projected to have a short-term detrimental influence on the nutrition sector’s export-import trade. The nutrition segment’s short-term impact is less pronounced; nevertheless, COVID-19’s negative influence on the global economy may have major indirect repercussions on the nutrition section of the market. Market participants and the government, for example, are actively investing in ensuring the provision of vital nutrition and food. The majority of infant food makers were found to be concentrating on increasing production in order to ensure availability. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) also advised that during the COVID-19 outbreak, people should only buy 10 to 2 weeks’ worth of formula to ensure that everyone has access to it.
An increase in the working mother population, increasing spending on newborn health, and rising demand for organic baby food are all factors driving the market forward.
There has been a significant increase in the number of young working mothers in recent years. Because these working women rely heavily on processed infant nutrition products, this has been a critical element in fueling the expansion of the infant nutrition market. In the United Kingdom, for example, the number of working mothers has risen to one of the highest levels in recent decades. In 2019, the United Kingdom’s Office for National Statistics (ONS) released data on families and the job market. According to statistics, 66.2 % of moms worked in 2000, rising to 74.6 % in 2020. Because of the low incomes and high cost of living in cities, more women are working to support their families. As a result, because working women rely mostly on processed child nutrition products, this aspect is boosting the infant food nutrition industry.
Stress is currently one of the most common concerns that working women encounter, and it causes them to produce less milk. Because of these factors, people are adopting more convenience-oriented lifestyles, which makes infant formula and baby foods more appealing.
Furthermore, due to a variety of social reasons, parents are observed to be spending more on their children than in past years. Children are now considered more deserving of protection than they were previously. Many surveys show that parents spend a lot of money on their children, often out of guilt, shame, or social anxiety.
Furthermore, in many developing economies, factors such as the rise of the middle class, fast urbanization, and increased rates of female labor force participation have encouraged the adoption of convenience-oriented lifestyles, making prepared baby foods and infant formula more appealing. The burgeoning middle class in emerging and developing countries has opened up new frontiers in the baby nutrition market, as the need for goods that fit into a working mom’s schedule has increased. As a result of these factors, the infant formula ingredients industry is expected to grow.
Some of the Major Risks posing as a threat for entry in the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
The Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market is highly consolidated with the top 5 players acquiring a market share of more than 60% and this along with the high investments required for R&D activities to find new Infant Formulas makes this industry a highly competitive segment and hence causing entry barriers and necessitating the acquisition or collaboration of small businesses with large corporations.
Stage 1 and stage 2 follow-up formulae are strictly regulated around the world, with most regulatory bodies advising against marketing infant formulas to increase nursing rates. With rising food safety concerns, authorities are tightening the regulatory framework to safeguard the safety of infants. Changing regulatory regulations, particularly in China and Europe, are projected to have a substantial impact on the infant formula ingredients market in the medium to long term. There are other regulatory scenarios that impose substantial entry barriers for new entrants into the industry under consideration.
Top Market Opportunities
Some of the Key Market Opportunities in the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
Growing Focus on Infant Care and Nutrition
The fastest rising attention and focus on infant nutritional needs. The rise in the number of working women and mothers, as well as their increased discretionary spending, has boosted sales of baby nourishment items. Increased lactation cases, medicine, a lack of support and skilled breastfeeding experts, unsupportive work rules, and cultural norms are some of the causes that can drive higher product demand.
According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF’s) 2019 Global Breastfeeding Scorecard, the current rate of breastfeeding remains inadequate when compared to standard recommendations around the world. There are several instances around the world where mothers choose infant formula over nursing for their children, relying solely on market products. As a result, producers are improvising and modifying their formulations to more nearly resemble the content of breast milk.
Surging demand for premium infant nutrition product
Due to the expanding health and wellness trend, organic infant formula is gaining momentum in the market. The market for infant formula is predicted to increase faster as a result of this trend. The demand for dried food is increasing among parents, which is projected to help the infant formula industry grow. They are simple to use and come in a variety of tastes. Major firms’ continuous improvisation in infant formula in order to fulfil expanding demand is also expected to provide attractive growth prospects.
For Instance, Else Nutrition, a creator and marketer of clean-ingredients, plant-based nutrition products, announced the introduction of its first commercial product in February 2020. It’s a next-generation, 100% plant-based, organic toddler formula developed with a proprietary almond, buckwheat, and tapioca composition.
Growth in the online retail industry
Growth in the internet retail business around the world, which allows for quick product purchases at a reasonable price with convenience, is predicted to open up new chances in the infant formula market. Due to their busy and hectic lifestyles, working women prefer to purchase online. As a result, market growth is likely to be boosted by growth in the online retail industry across developing areas over the forecast period.
The Major Drivers fueling the growth of the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
Increasing number of Women joining Workforce Subsequently after Childbirth
Because of their increasing preference for supporting their family and keeping their household economy on track, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women joining the workforce after becoming mothers. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 62.1 % of all women with children under the age of three were employed in the United States in 2020. As a result of this issue, mothers are under more stress to assure the care of their newborns, and mothers’ acceptance of infant formula ingredients has increased, increasing the need to give critical nutrients and vitamins for their babies.
Furthermore, as the population grows, there is a shift in paradigm for infant foods in order to supply them with fundamental macro and micronutrients, which is expected to propel the infant formula ingredients market forward.
Increasing demand for dairy food supplements
The infant formula ingredients market is growing due to rising consumer demand for dairy food supplements, particularly in the sector of food preparation, and rising consumer trends toward a healthy lifestyle. Increased demand for protein is driven by socio-economic trends such as growing incomes, increased urbanization, and ageing populations, with the significance of protein to healthy ageing becoming more widely acknowledged, as well as recognition of the role of protein in a nutritious diet. In poor and middle-income countries, economic development and urbanization are causing dramatic shifts in population-level food trends. As a result, developing countries account for the majority of global growth in demand for animal-based diets. As a result, the market for infant formula ingredients is expected to rise over the forecast period 2020-2025.
Surging demand for probiotics and specific milk protein fractions
The infant formula ingredients market is growing due to rising demand for prebiotics and particular milk protein fractions, as well as rising health benefits such as reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, lower cholesterol levels, and good bone growth. The demand for functional prebiotic foods has risen as a result of the possible health and nutritional benefits of prebiotics. Prebiotics’ effectiveness is dependent on its ability to provide a specified number of viable cells when consumed. Prebiotics have been protected with microencapsulation throughout the food processing and marketing process until they reach the target spot in the gastrointestinal tract.
The key factors determining the viability of encapsulated prebiotics are the biomaterials and procedures utilized in micro-encapsulation. Prebiotic bacterial cultures have the ability to suppress pathogenic bacteria in the small and large intestine, which is one of their main advantages. Because of the potential health benefits, prebiotics are increasingly being used in foods and prebiotic ingredients and supplements are being developed. As a result, the market for infant formula ingredients is expected to rise over the forecast period 2020-2025.
Intensifying R&D Activities
The global market is propelled by promising demand dynamics such as low fertility rates and low nursing rates, signaling early reliance on breast milk substitutes. Consumers’ changing lifestyles and modernization are also fueling product expansion. The product’s convenience, combined with its compositional upgrade, is driving demand among parents.
The growing investment by major players in research and development of innovative products is projected to boost the baby formula market’s growth. For instance, in November 2020, Abbott launched its most innovative first infant formula yet, Similac Pro-Advance with 2′-Fucosyllactose Oligosaccharide† (2′-FL†), which is the first product in Canada with this breakthrough ingredient in infant formula.
The Major Restraints deterring the growth of the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
Tough Competition Between Local Players and Global Players
Despite the fact that the market for infant formula components is rising, the market is becoming more competitive due to the presence of a variety of prominent firms. Furthermore, local firms dominate the infant formula ingredients industry, adopting new platforms and employing multi-channel strategies. Furthermore, these establishments focus on providing convenient payment solutions by integrating various technology in order to bring comfort to their consumers and increase sales. These are some of the variables that are expected to stymie the market for infant formula ingredients.
infant formula ingredients being difficult to digest
The chemicals in infant formula can be difficult to digest at times. Breast milk includes more whey protein, but baby formula ingredients have more casein protein, which is difficult for newborns to digest and can cause gastrointestinal issues. Ingredients are also quite expensive since they have nutritional value. These constraints are stifling the market for baby formula components. The elements in infant formula make a common formula that may or may not be suitable for a newborn, as not every nutrient in the formula is required by the baby. The adoption of Infant formula is hampered as a result, and the market for infant formula ingredients suffers as a result.
The Key Challenges hindering the growth of the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
Hazardous effects on the Environment
Farming, storage, pasteurization, drying, cooling, packaging, and shipping are all required for formula milk. According to experts, every kilogram of powdered newborn milk necessitates 4,000 liters of water. Not to mention the fact that cows produce powdered milk, and the cattle business is the second-largest source of methane emissions, a heat-trapping gas 30 times more powerful than CO2. As the Infant Formula Ingredients has a toxic effect on the environment in addition with factors such as strict regulations and lack of awareness are acting as a challenge for the growth of the Infant Formula Ingredients Market.
Strict regulatory hurdle
The market expansion of infant formula is projected to be limited by the severe regulatory hurdles associated with the approval for the production of infant formula and food. Furthermore, the increasing frequency of scandals in the infant formula industry is projected to have a negative impact on market growth.
For instance, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has controlled the segment by imposing restrictions on the addition of certain maximum and minimum levels of selenium to those essential minerals mentioned in 21 CFR 107.100. The quality control processes for creating infant formula products need ensuring the appropriate level of such nutrients.
Some of the key technologies shaping the future of the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
Synthetically engineered human milk oligosaccharides
The third-most abundant ingredient in breast milk, after lactose and fat, is a group of approximately 150 distinct sugar molecules. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are not digested by babies, but they do serve as a prebiotic food supply for the good bacteria that live in their gut. HMOs have been proven to have a number of beneficial effects on baby development, including protecting neonates from infections, modifying cell growth, and lowering inflammation, according to research.
More than 15 distinct HMOs may now be chemically synthesized for use in infant formula thanks to new bioengineering processes. It has become more possible to cultivate exact and cost-effective yields of these beneficial components using fermentation and enzymatic synthesis processes.
New extraction technologies for milk fat globule membranes (MFGM)
The mammary glands of breastfeeding mothers secrete fat droplets packaged in an intricately structured three-layer membrane known as a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). This complex membrane structure contains a variety of proteins, cholesterol, and phospholipids that are hypothesized to aid in the development of the infant brain and immune system.
MFGM is also found in cow’s milk, which is used to make most newborn formulae. Pasteurization and high-shear homogenization destroy these structures, hence infant formula products haven’t featured MFGM until recently. MFGM can now be isolated from unpasteurized cow’s milk and preserved for use as an ingredient in newborn formula thanks to new microfiltration and supercritical fluid extraction processes.
The Type of the ingredient, the brand of the formula, the formula containers are the major factors that determine the price of the for instance, Liquid concentrate and ready-to-feed versions of baby formula drive these price points higher by an average of $0.05-2.30 per ounce.
Here is the price of baby formula per ounce based on the type and the brand of the Infant Formula Ingredient:
|Cow Milk Formula||Enfamil Infant, Enfamil Newborn, Gerber Good Start, Similac Advance||$15-17 per 12.5oz. container|
|Organic Cow Milk Formula||Earth’s Best, Plum Organics, Happy Baby Organics, Honest Co. Organic||$25-30 per 21oz. container|
|Soy Formula||ProSoBee, Soy Isomil||$17-20 per 12.5oz. container|
|Goat Milk Formula||Kabrita, Holle, HiPP, Mt. Capra, Nanny Care, Sammy’s Milk||$32-70 per container|
|Hypoallergenic Formula||Alimentum, Nutramigen, Pregestimil||$38-45 per 19.8oz. container|
|Elemental Formula||Puramino, Elecare, Neocate||$40 per 14oz. container|
The Infant Formula Ingredients is highly regulated as Infant Formula is a food item and some of the key regulations in the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
Regulation in the USA
In the USA, FDA regulates the Infant Formula Ingredients as infant formula is a food, the laws and regulations governing foods apply to infant formula. Section 412(i) of the FFDCA and 21 CFR 107.100 provide FDA standards for nutrition in baby formulae. There are minimal quantities for 29 nutrients and maximum amounts for nine of them in these nutrient standards. Unless the formula is “exempt” from specific nutrient requirements, it is an adulterated product if it does not include certain nutrients at or above the minimal level or within the defined range.
Regulation in the Europe
Infant formulas and follow-on formulae are products that are designed to meet the nutritional needs of healthy babies (children under the age of 12 months). Commission Directive 2006/141/EC currently covers these products specifically. Find available translations of the preceding, which was adopted under the former legislative framework of Directive 2009/39/EC and has been changed multiple times since then.
The Directive specifies the composition and labelling standards for baby and follow-on formulas. The Directive’s annexes specify the composition of baby formulas and follow-on formulae, including minimum and maximum levels of energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, mineral elements, vitamins, and certain additional compounds.
For infant formulae and follow-on formulae from 20 July 2016
Establishes a set of general compositional and labelling guidelines. It also applies to the labelling of follow-on formulas, limiting the use of images or words that may idealise the usage of products (previously only applicable to infant formula)
The new delegated Regulation:
- On the basis of the most recent scientific advice, updates the existing compositional standards.
- Changes the labelling standards to ensure that they are consistent with the horizontal rules of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 on the disclosure of food information to consumers, while also taking into account the products’ unique characteristics.
- To safeguard breast-feeding, prohibits the use of nutrition and health claims on infant formula.
- Allows national competent authorities to better monitor their activities by forcing operators to notify them when several follow-on formulae are put on the market (in addition to infant formulae, for which the obligation already existed).
Regulation in China
China has had a regulation requiring the registration of baby and young child product formulas from January 1, 2018. A recipe registration certificate is required for imported baby formula produced after January 1, 2018. On the label and instructions, the registration number must be stated. Imported infant formula with manufacturing dates prior to January 1, 2018 can be sold in China until the expiration date.
Post COVID-19 Recovery
The increased number of instances of COVID–19 is projected to have a short-term detrimental influence on the nutrition sector’s export-import trade. The nutrition segment’s short-term impact is less pronounced; nevertheless, COVID-19’s negative influence on the global economy may have major indirect repercussions on the nutrition section of the market.
Market participants and the government, for example, are actively investing in ensuring the provision of vital nutrition and food. The majority of infant food makers were found to be concentrating on increasing production in order to ensure availability which will positively impact the growth of the Market. The Recovery of the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market is expected from Q3’ 2021 from the aftermath of the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Market Size and Forecast
The infant formula ingredients market is expected to be worth USD 17.6 billion in 2020 and USD 25.5 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 7.3%.
Carbohydrates held a major portion of the infant formula ingredients market, accounting for around 28.3 %. In infant formula, lactose is the principal source of dairy carbohydrates. Nonetheless, this dairy ingredient is available as a standalone product as well as in maltodextrin. Lactose is more typically added to Formula 3, with added skimmed milk powder providing the lactose in these formulations. Galacto-oligosaccharides are another key element that is steadily increasing in popularity.
The cow milk sector has the biggest revenue share of 38.9% in the baby formula ingredients market among the source segments. In addition, goat milk powder is a significant demand area. 16 of the 19 infant formula milk powder producers in Shaanxi, China (which accounts for around 85% of the national goat milk product market), provide goat milk-based powder for infant formulations.
In terms of form, the powder category accounted for 53.2 % of the market in 2019. The demand for powder-based formula ingredients is growing at a rapid rate, owing to advantages such as convenience of handling and a lower risk of incompatibility than liquid dosage forms. Cost-effectiveness, more dosage flexibility, higher absorption, stability, and bioavailability, and reduced dusting nature are the main driving considerations for powdered substances.
The Asia-Pacific region accounts for 39 % of infant formula ingredient value sales, followed by Europe (19%) and North America (27%), while the Middle East and Africa and Latin America are expanding faster. Value sales in Europe climbed by 6.1 %, led by double-digit growth in Germany, which was fueled mostly by exports to China.
The infant formula ingredients market is estimated to be worth USD 17.6 billion in 2020 and is poised to reach a Market Size of USD 25.5 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 7.3%.
Cow’s milk is one of the first meals introduced to an infant’s diet. Babies under the age of one year should not be given unprocessed, raw, or unpasteurized bovine milk as a substitute for human milk or infant formula, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Most healthy full-term babies can consume bovine-milk-based formula, which contains added vitamins, minerals, vegetable oils, and calcium.
During the forecast period, soy-based formula is expected to grow at a significant rate. For infants with congenital lactase deficiency or galactosemia, soy-based formulations are a viable choice. They help with milk and colic allergies; nevertheless, some people who are allergic to cow’s milk may also be allergic to soymilk.
Protein hydrolysate formulas are intended for babies who cannot accept soy-based or cow-milk formulas, and they are gaining popularity in the market today. They contain proteins that have been hydrolyzed (to a greater or lesser extent) into smaller sizes than those found in soy or cow-based products.
During the forecast period, probiotics are expected to increase at a substantial CAGR. Breastfed newborns have a more stable and homogenous population of oligosaccharides than formula-fed babies, according to research. Adding probiotics to newborn formula is an important method for reducing the incidence and severity of diarrhea.
For growing neonates, the fat or lipid fraction of human milk is the primary source of energy, accounting for 44 % to 60 % of total energy. As milk fat globule membrane supplementation of formula narrows the cognitive development gap between formula-fed and breastfed infants, the oil & fat segment is gaining traction.
Other dairy fractions have been separated and are now available commercially. Proteins such as osteopontin, -lactalbumin, nucleotides, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins are among the contents.
In 2020, the infant formula ingredients market was led by growing-up-formula. The number of women working outside the house is also driving growth in the growing-up-formula. According to the World Bank, the proportion of women in the workforce increased by more than 4% in the 60 countries studied. As many working moms return to work soon after giving birth, ready-to-use baby formulae provide a tempting alternative, bridging the gap between their desire for healthy, nutritious food and their need for convenience.
The development of the infant formula ingredients market in North America is being aided by the prevalence of high healthcare expenditures, as well as amazing levels of awareness and rising disposable income. Additionally, some consumers, particularly in wealthy nations such as the United States and Canada, are willing to pay higher prices for such goods because they believe they are more nutritious, healthful, and safe for their infants than conventional products.
Because of its excellent production facilities and high per-baby spending power, Europe is a noteworthy market for. In addition, the presence of major competitors in the region, as well as a well-developed biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry, is credited with the market’s rise in Europe for infant formula ingredients.
Ingredient makers must keep up with changing requirements and deliver components that fit with changing product requirements through innovation across functional ingredients to meet the growing demand for specialty formulas.
Adding Functional Ingredients to Their Portfolio to Bring Products Closer to Breast Milk: Manufacturers must lobby government officials to create a regulatory environment that encourages innovation. To ensure early adoption, novel ingredient approval should be expedited.
To meet changing consumer demand, we offer high-quality, non-GMO, organic ingredients. The demand for organic, non-GM ingredients is being driven by rising clean-label requirements and the need to differentiate products. In order to meet shifting consumer demand, ingredient manufacturers must pivot their products.
Distribution Chain Analysis
The Distribution Chain of the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market is as in the below image
Previously, the product portfolio was less diverse; now, as time passes and product demand rises, market players are taking advantage of new product advancements. To expand their market reach and production capacities, companies like Nestle S.A., Danone SA, and others are diversifying their product portfolios and expanding their base. Nestle S.A. is a market leader in baby food and infant nutrition. In 2020, the corporation had a strong global presence, with 20% of the global market share in the infant formula area. The company’s major methods for competing in the global market are innovation and business expansion.
Recent Market Developments:
- In January 2021, Timios launched its new category of ‘Made to Order’ Porridge range for infants and toddlers.
- In March 2020, Conagen, Inc. an established biotech firm based in the greater biotech corridor in Boston, released a statement announcing that it has discovered and created a sustainable proprietary lactoferrin protein that represents the nutrient composition of breast milk lactoferrin. The first-of-its-kind natural lactoferrin protein is developed via a commercial-scale fermentation process.
- In March 2020, Nestle S.A. introduced a first-of-its-kind, single material pouch for its baby food products. The newly designed-to-be-recyclable pouch is made from polypropylene (PP), a versatile form of plastic available commercially.
- In February 2020, Happy Family Organics announced a new product line, Happy Baby Organics Regenerative & Organic baby food. This new line for infants aged 6+ months is made with ingredients grown using regenerative farming practices.
The Infant Formula Ingredients Players primary strategies include product launches, mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, and R&D activities. The top 10 companies in the Infant Formula Ingredients Market are expected to consolidate their market position by 2020. AAK AB, Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited, Carbery Food Ingredients Limited, Royal Friesland Campina N.V., and Sachsenmilch Leppersdorf GmbH are among the top 10 firms in Infant Formula Ingredients.
Key Market Players
Some of the Key Market Players and their brands in the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market include
|Infant Formula Ingredient Company||Brands|
|Nestle||Gerber, NaturNes and Nestle Cerelac|
|Danone||Protinex, ApTamil, Dexolac, Neocate, Farex, Nusobee, Easum|
|Yili||PRO-KIDO, Jinbeizh Infant formula|
|Kraft Heinz||Plasmon Nutrimune|
|Bellamy’s Organic||Bellamy’s Organic Step 1 Infant Formula|
|Perrigo||Organic Non-GMO Infant Formula, Advantage Non-GMO Infant Formula, Gentle Non-GMO Infant Formula|
FrieslandCampina Ingredients, Friso, NoyNoy
Reogma predicts positive developments for greater use of Infant Formula Ingredients goods, with the segment growing at a rate of 7.3 % during the projected period (2020 – 2025). The usage of infant formula ingredients in the food business, according to industry experts, is gaining substantial traction in the market.
New enterprises joining the market will place a greater emphasis on designing and producing novel products, in order to meet the growing demands of end-users. Growing Focus on Infant Care and Nutrition, surging demand for premium infant nutrition product and Growth in the online retail industry are expected to offer lucrative growth opportunities for the Global Infant Formula Ingredients Market.
- US$ – US Dollars
- CAGR – compounded Annual Growth Rate
- AAP – American Academy of Pediatrics
- UNICEF – United Nations Children’s Fund
- BLS – Bureau of Labor Statistics
- R&D – Research & Development
- FDA – Food and Drug Administration
- HMO – Human Milk Oligosaccharides
- MFGM – Milk Fat Globule Membranes