Introduction :: Slovakia


Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. After the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, backlash to language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) encouraged the strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who fell administratively under the Austrian half of the empire. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. The new state was envisioned as a nation with Czech and Slovak branches. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state created by and allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of Czechoslovakia’s leaders to liberalize communist rule and create “socialism with a human face,” ushering in a period of repression known as “normalization.” The peaceful “Velvet Revolution” swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia underwent a nonviolent “velvet divorce” into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.

Geography :: Slovakia


Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates

48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references



total: 49,035 sq km

land: 48,105 sq km

water: 930 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,611 km

border countries (5): Austria 105 km, Czech Republic 241 km, Hungary 627 km, Poland 541 km, Ukraine 97 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters


rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south


mean elevation: 458 m

lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources

lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 40.1% (2011 est.)

arable land: 28.9% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 0.4% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 10.8% (2011 est.)

forest: 40.2% (2011 est.)

other: 19.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

869 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Natural hazards


Environment – current issues

air pollution and acid rain present human health risks and damage forests; land erosion caused by agricultural and mining practices; water pollution

Environment – international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys

People and Society :: Slovakia


5,440,602 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups

Slovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Romani 2%, other 1.8% (includes Czech, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Russian, German, Polish), unspecified 7% (2011 est.)

note: data represent population by nationality; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 711% of Slovakia’s population


Slovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Ruthenian 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)


Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.6

youth dependency ratio: 23

elderly dependency ratio: 24.6

potential support ratio: 4.1 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years

male: 40.1 years

female: 43.6 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.05% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

9.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border


urban population: 53.8% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

435,000 BRATISLAVA (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

27.6 years (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.8 years

male: 74.3 years

female: 81.6 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.44 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

6.7% (2017)

Physicians density

3.42 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

5.8 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 99.9% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0.1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

<.1% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

1,200 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<100 (2018 est.)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

20.5% (2016)

Education expenditures

3.9% of GDP (2016)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 16 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.9%

male: 14.3%

female: 16.1% (2018 est.)

Government :: Slovakia

Country name

conventional long form: Slovak Republic

conventional short form: Slovakia

local long form: Slovenska republika

local short form: Slovensko

etymology: may derive from the medieval Latin word “Slavus” (Slav), which had the local form “Sloven”, used since the 13th century to refer to the territory of Slovakia and its inhabitants

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Bratislava

geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name was adopted in 1919 after Czechoslovakia gained its independence and may derive from later transliterations of the 9th century military commander, Braslav, or the 11th century Bohemian Duke Bretislav I; alternatively, the name may derive from the Slovak words “brat” (brother) and “slava” (glory)

Administrative divisions

8 regions (kraje, singular – kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky


1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)


history: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992

amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2017

Legal system

civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note – legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Peter PELLIGRINI (since 22 March 2018); Deputy Prime Ministers Richard RASI (since 22 March 2018), Laszlo SOLYMOS (since 22 March 2018), Gabriela MATECNA (since 29 November 2017)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March and 30 March 2019 (next to be held March 2024); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council
election results: Zuzana CAPUTOVA elected president in second round; percent of vote – Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single- and multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 February 2020 (next to be held March 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party – OLaNO-NOVA 25%, Smer-SD 18.3%, Sme-Rodina 8.2%, LSNS 8%, PS-SPOLU 7%, SaS 6.2%, Za Ludi 5.8%, other 21.5%; seats by party – OLaNO-NOVA 53, Smer-SD 38, Sme-Rodina 17, LSNS 17, SaS 13, Za Ludi 12, PS-SPOLU 0; composition – men 120, women 30, percent of women 20%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 80 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 13 judges organized into 3-judge panels)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates nominated by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member self-governing body that includes the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president serve for life subject to removal by the president at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges serve 12-year terms

subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Special Criminal Court; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit;

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Alojz HLINA]
Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR]
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
For the People or Za Ludi [Andrej KISKA]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Kotleba-People’s Party Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities – New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
Party of the Hungarian Community or SMK [Jozsef MENYHART]
Progressive Slovakia or PS [Michal TRUBAN]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
Together or SPOLU [Miroslav BEBLAVY]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

Charge d’Affaires Josef POLAKOVIC (since 7 April 2020)
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: 1 237-1054

FAX: 1 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Bridget A. BRINK (since 20 August 2019)

telephone: 421 5443-3338

embassy: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava

mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava

FAX: 421 5441-5148

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red

National anthem


Economy :: Slovakia

Economy – overview

Slovakias economy suffered from a slow start in the first years after its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993, due to the countrys authoritarian leadership and high levels of corruption, but economic reforms implemented after 1998 have placed Slovakia on a path of strong growth. With a population of 5.4 million, the Slovak Republic has a small, open economy driven mainly by automobile and electronics exports, which account for more than 80% of GDP. Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the euro zone in 2009. The countrys banking sector is sound and predominantly foreign owned.

Slovakia has been a regional FDI champion for several years, attractive due to a relatively low-cost yet skilled labor force, and a favorable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe. Exports and investment have been key drivers of Slovakias robust growth in recent years. The unemployment rate fell to historical lows in 2017, and rising wages fueled increased consumption, which played a more prominent role in 2017 GDP growth. A favorable outlook for the Eurozone suggests continued strong growth prospects for Slovakia during the next few years, although inflation is also expected to pick up.

Among the most pressing domestic issues potentially threatening the attractiveness of the Slovak market are shortages in the qualified labor force, persistent corruption issues, and an inadequate judiciary, as well as a slow transition to an innovation-based economy. The energy sector in particular is characterized by unpredictable regulatory oversight and high costs, in part driven by government interference in regulated tariffs. Moreover, the governments attempts to maintain low household energy prices could harm the profitability of domestic energy firms while undercutting energy efficiency initiatives.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$179.7 billion (2017 est.)
$173.8 billion (2016 est.)
$168.2 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$95.96 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

3.4% (2017 est.)
3.3% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$33,100 (2017 est.)
$32,000 (2016 est.)
$31,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

20.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 96.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -92.9% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 35% (2017 est.)

services: 61.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products


automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical

Industrial production growth rate

2.7% (2017 est.)

Labor force

2.758 million (2017 est.)

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 3.9%

industry: 22.7%

services: 73.4% (2015)

Unemployment rate

8.1% (2017 est.)
9.7% (2016 est.)

Population below poverty line

12.3% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)


revenues: 37.79 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 38.79 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

39.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

50.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
51.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general Government Gross Debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central, state, local government, and social security funds

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.3% (2017 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.005 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.309 billion (2016 est.)


$80.8 billion (2017 est.)
$75.53 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

Germany 20.7%, Czech Republic 11.6%, Poland 7.7%, France 6.3%, Italy 6.1%, UK 6%, Hungary 6%, Austria 6% (2017)

Exports – commodities

vehicles and related parts 27%, machinery and electrical equipment 20%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, iron and steel 4%, mineral oils and fuels 5% (2015 est.)


$80.07 billion (2017 est.)
$72.51 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

machinery and electrical equipment 20%, vehicles and related parts 14%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, fuel and mineral oils 9% (2015 est.)

Imports – partners

Germany 19.1%, Czech Republic 16.3%, Austria 10.3%, Poland 6.5%, Hungary 6.4%, South Korea 4.5%, Russia 4.5%, France 4.3%, China 4.2% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.622 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.892 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$75.04 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$74.19 billion (31 March 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar –
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Slovakia

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

25.32 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

26.64 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

10.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – imports

13.25 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

7.644 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

36% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

27% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

24% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

13% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

1,022 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Crude oil – imports

111,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

9 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

131,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

85,880 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

81,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

38,340 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas – production

104.8 million cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

4.672 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

4.984 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

34.86 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Slovakia

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 722,704

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,241,702

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: a modern telecommunications system; near monopoly of fixed-line market; competition in mobile and fixed broadband market; broadband growth in recent years; competition among DSL, cable and fiber platforms; FttP growth in cities; mid-2019 launched 1G cable broadband service in 3 cities and 200,000 premises; EU funds development and improvement of e-govt. and online services; regulator prepares groundwork for 5G services (2020)

domestic: four companies have a license to operate cellular networks and provide nationwide cellular services; a few other companies provide services but do not have their own networks; fixed-line 13 per 100 and mobile-cellular 133 per 100 teledensity (2018)

international: country code – 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services; connects to DREAM cable (2017)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 4,391,969

percent of population: 80.66% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 1,507,998

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Slovakia

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, and a Joint Training and Support Command (2019)

Military expenditures

1.74% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.22% of GDP (2018)
1.1% of GDP (2017)
1.12% of GDP (2016)
1.12% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic have approximately 15,000 active duty personnel (6,000 Land Forces; 4,000 Air and Air Defense; 5,000 other, including central staff, support, and training duties) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Slovakian military consists mostly of Soviet-era platforms; since 2010, it has imported limited quantities of equipment from China, Czechia, Italy, Russia, and the US (2019 est.)

Military deployments

240 Cyprus (UNFICYP); up to 150 Latvia (NATO) (March 2020)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2012)

Transportation :: Slovakia

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 23 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,100 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

OM (2016)


35 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 19 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 9

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 15 (2019)

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 5


1 (2019)


2270 km gas transmission pipelines, 6278 km high-pressure gas distribution pipelines, 27023 km mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines (2016), 510 km oil (2015)


total: 3,580 km (2016)

standard gauge: 3,435 km 1.435-m gauge (1,587 km electrified) (2016)

narrow gauge: 46 km 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge (2016)

broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge (2016)


total: 56,926 km (includes local roads, national roads, and 464 km of highways) (2016)


172 km (on Danube River) (2012)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)

Transnational Issues :: Slovakia

Disputes – international

bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary’s completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU’s external border, Slovakia has implemented strict Schengen border rules

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 1,523 (2018)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy


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