Introduction :: Qatar


Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar within the last 60 years transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. Former Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, who overthrew his father in a bloodless coup in 1995, ushered in wide-sweeping political and media reforms, unprecedented economic investment, and a growing Qatari regional leadership role, in part through the creation of the pan-Arab satellite news network Al-Jazeera and Qatar’s mediation of some regional conflicts. In the 2000s, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and by 2007 had attained the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar did not experience domestic unrest or violence like that seen in other Near Eastern and North African countries in 2011, due in part to its immense wealth and patronage network. In mid-2013, HAMAD peacefully abdicated, transferring power to his son, the current Amir TAMIM bin Hamad. TAMIM is popular with the Qatari public, for his role in shepherding the country through an economic embargo by some other regional countries, for his efforts to improve the country’s healthcare and education systems, and for his expansion of the country’s infrastructure in anticipation of Doha’s hosting of the 2022 World Cup.

Recently, Qatars relationships with its neighbors have been tense, although since the fall of 2019 there have been signs of improved prospects for a thaw. Following the outbreak of regional unrest in 2011, Doha prided itself on its support for many popular revolutions, particularly in Libya and Syria. This stance was to the detriment of Qatars relations with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which temporarily recalled their respective ambassadors from Doha in March 2014. TAMIM later oversaw a warming of Qatars relations with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE in November 2014 following Kuwaiti mediation and signing of the Riyadh Agreement. This reconciliation, however, was short-lived. In June 2017, Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE (the “Quartet”) cut diplomatic and economic ties with Qatar in response to alleged violations of the agreement, among other complaints.

Geography :: Qatar


Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references

Middle East


total: 11,586 sq km

land: 11,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 87 km

border countries (1): Saudi Arabia 87 km


563 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line

contiguous zone: 24 nm


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers


mostly flat and barren desert


mean elevation: 28 m

lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 m

Natural resources

petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use

agricultural land: 5.6% (2011 est.)

arable land: 1.1% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 0.2% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 4.3% (2011 est.)

forest: 0% (2011 est.)

other: 94.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

130 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most of the population is clustered in or around the capital of Doha on the eastern side of the peninsula

Natural hazards

haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Environment – current issues

air, land, and water pollution are significant environmental issues; limited natural freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities; other issues include conservation of oil supplies and preservation of the natural wildlife heritage

Environment – international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

the peninsula occupies a strategic location in the central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

People and Society :: Qatar


2,444,174 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Qatari(s)

adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups

non-Qatari 88.4%, Qatari 11.6% (2015 est.)


Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language



Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 18.1

youth dependency ratio: 16.1

elderly dependency ratio: 2

potential support ratio: 50.1 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 33.7 years

male: 35 years

female: 28.2 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.55% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

9.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

1.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

6.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

most of the population is clustered in or around the capital of Doha on the eastern side of the peninsula


urban population: 99.2% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 2.41% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

641,000 DOHA (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 2.42 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 5.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 3.4 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.89 male(s)/female

total population: 3.39 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

9 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.4 years

male: 77.2 years

female: 81.6 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.88 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

37.5% (2012)

Drinking water source

improved:** total:** 100% of population

unimproved:** total:** 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

2.6% (2017)

Physicians density

2.69 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

1.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** total:** 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:** total:** 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

<500 (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<100 (2017 est.)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

35.1% (2016)

Education expenditures

2.9% of GDP (2017)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.5%

male: 92.4%

female: 94.7% (2017)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 11 years

female: 14 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 0.4%

male: 0.2%

female: 1.5% (2018 est.)

Government :: Qatar

Country name

conventional long form: State of Qatar

conventional short form: Qatar

local long form: Dawlat Qatar

local short form: Qatar

etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it dates back at least 2,000 years since a term “Catharrei” was used to describe the inhabitants of the peninsula by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), and a “Catara” peninsula is depicted on a map by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.)

note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation is gattar or cottar

Government type

absolute monarchy


name: Doha

geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: derives from the Arabic term “dohat,” meaning “roundness,” and refers to the small rounded bays along the area’s coastline

Administrative divisions

8 municipalities (baladiyat, singular – baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Ash Shamal, Ash Shihaniyah, Az Za’ayin, Umm Salal


3 September 1971 (from the UK)

National holiday

National Day, 18 December (1878), anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne; Independence Day, 3 September (1971)


history: previous 1972 (provisional); latest drafted 2 July 2002, approved by referendum 29 April 2003, endorsed 8 June 2004, effective 9 June 2005

amendments: proposed by the Amir or by one third of Advisory Council members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Advisory Council members and approval and promulgation by the emir; articles pertaining to the rule of state and its inheritance, functions of the emir, and citizen rights and liberties cannot be amended

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil law and Islamic (sharia) law (in family and personal matters)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Qatar

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years; 15 years if an Arab national


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Sheikh KHALID ibn Khalifa ibn Abdul Aziz Al Thani (since 28 January 2020); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Mohamed AL Attiyah (since 14 November 2017); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs MOHAMED bin Abdulrahman Al Thani (since 14 November 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the amir

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 30 members directly elected by popular vote for 4-year re-electable terms; 15 members appointed by the monarch to serve until resignation or until relieved; note – legislative drafting authority rests with the Council of Ministers and is reviewed by the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura

elections: last on 17 June 2016 (next in 2019); note – in late 2019, the amir announced the formation of a committee to oversee preparations for the first elected council, although Doha has not selected a date for elections

election results: NA; composition – men 41, women 4, percent of women 8.9%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and several judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body consisting of judiciary heads appointed by the Amir; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the monarch; term of appointment NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; Courts of Justice; Qatar International Court and Dispute Resolution Center, established in 2009, provides dispute resolution services for institutions and bodies in Qatar, as well as internationally

Political parties and leaders

political parties are banned

International organization participation

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA (observer), EITI (implementing country), FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador MISHAL bin Hamad bin Muhammad Al Thani (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: 1 274-1600

FAX: 1 237-0682
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Phillip NELSON (since 2 March 2020)

telephone: [974] 4496-6000

embassy: 22 February Street, Al Luqta District, P. O. Box 2399, Doha

mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha

FAX: [974] 4488-4298

Flag description

maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side; maroon represents the blood shed in Qatari wars, white stands for peace; the nine-pointed serrated edge signifies Qatar as the ninth member of the “reconciled emirates” in the wake of the Qatari-British treaty of 1916

note: the other eight emirates are the seven that compose the UAE and Bahrain; according to some sources, the dominant color was formerly red, but this darkened to maroon upon exposure to the sun and the new shade was eventually adopted

National symbol(s)

a maroon field surmounted by a white serrated band with nine white points; national colors: maroon, white

National anthem


Economy :: Qatar

Economy – overview

Qatars oil and natural gas resources are the countrys main economic engine and government revenue source, driving Qatars high economic growth and per capita income levels, robust state spending on public entitlements, and booming construction spending, particularly as Qatar prepares to host the World Cup in 2022. Although the government has maintained high capital spending levels for ongoing infrastructure projects, low oil and natural gas prices in recent years have led the Qatari Government to tighten some spending to help stem its budget deficit.

Qatars reliance on oil and natural gas is likely to persist for the foreseeable future. Proved natural gas reserves exceed 25 trillion cubic meters – 13% of the world total and, among countries, third largest in the world. Proved oil reserves exceed 25 billion barrels, allowing production to continue at current levels for about 56 years. Despite the dominance of oil and natural gas, Qatar has made significant gains in strengthening non-oil sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, and financial services, leading non-oil GDP to steadily rise in recent years to just over half the total.

Following trade restriction imposed by Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt in 2017, Qatar established new trade routes with other countries to maintain access to imports.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$339.5 billion (2017 est.)
$334.2 billion (2016 est.)
$327.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$166.9 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

1.6% (2017 est.)
2.1% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$124,100 (2017 est.)
$127,700 (2016 est.)
$134,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

50.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
42.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
47.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 24.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 43.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 51% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -37.3% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 50.3% (2017 est.)

services: 49.5% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish


liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizer, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair

Industrial production growth rate

3% (2017 est.)

Labor force

1.953 million (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate

8.9% (2017 est.)
11.1% (2016 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 35.9% (2007)


revenues: 44.1 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 53.82 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

26.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

53.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
46.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

Fiscal year

1 April – 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.4% (2017 est.)
2.7% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

$6.426 billion (2017 est.)
-$8.27 billion (2016 est.)


$67.5 billion (2017 est.)
$57.25 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

Japan 17.3%, South Korea 16%, India 12.6%, China 11.2%, Singapore 8.2%, UAE 6.4% (2017)

Exports – commodities

liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel


$30.77 billion (2017 est.)
$31.93 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals

Imports – partners

China 10.9%, US 8.9%, UAE 8.5%, Germany 8.1%, UK 5.5%, India 5.4%, Japan 5.3%, Italy 4.3% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$15.01 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$31.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$167.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$157.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar –
3.64 (2017 est.)
3.64 (2016 est.)
3.64 (2015 est.)
3.64 (2014 est.)
3.64 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Qatar

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

39.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

37.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

0 kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – imports

0 kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

8.796 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

1.464 million bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

1.15 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

25.24 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

273,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

277,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

485,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

12,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas – production

166.4 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

39.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

126.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

24.07 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

114.2 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Qatar

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 452,088

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,945,978

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 167 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: regional leaders in telecom; highest fixed-line and mobile penetrations in Middle East; deployed over 90 5G base stations for 5G launch, claiming 1st commercial launch of 5G in the world May 2018; telecom system centered in Doha; steady LTE networks; good broadband penetration, ADSL, Fiber-to-the-Home (FttP), wireless and mobile services; largest users of the Internet and use of OTT services and bundled services (2020)

domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 167 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code – 974; landing points for the Qatar-UAE Submarine Cable System, AAE-1, FOG, GBICS/East North Africa MENA and the FALCON submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and Southeast Asia; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; retains full ownership of two commercial satellites, Es’hailSat 1 and 2 (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

TV and radio broadcast licensing and access to local media markets are state controlled; home of the satellite TV channel Al-Jazeera, which was originally owned and financed by the Qatari government but has evolved to independent corporate status; Al-Jazeera claims editorial independence in broadcasting; local radio transmissions include state, private, and international broadcasters on FM frequencies in Doha; in August 2013, Qatar’s satellite company Es’hailSat launched its first communications satellite Es’hail 1 (manufactured in the US), which entered commercial service in December 2013 to provide improved television broadcasting capability and expand availability of voice and Internet; Es’hailSat launched its second commercial satellite in 2018 with aid of SpaceX (2019)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 2,355,297

percent of population: 99.65% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 267,906

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Qatar

Military and security forces

Qatari Amiri Land Force (QALF, includes Emiri Guard), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN, includes Coast Guard), Qatari Amiri Air Force (QAAF); Internal Security Forces: Mobile Gendarmerie

Military and security service personnel strengths

size assessments for the Qatari Amiri military vary; approximately 14,000 active personnel (10,000 Land Force, including Emiri Guard; 2,000 Navy, including Coast Guard; 2,000 Air Force); est. 5,000 Internal Security Forces
(2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Qatari military’s inventory includes a mix of older and modern weapons systems, mostly from the US and Europe, particularly France, Germany, and the UK; the leading providers of armaments to Qatar since 2010 are France, Germany, and the US; Qatar is scheduled to receive several ships from Italy beginning in 2021 and a large shipment of fighter aircraft from the UK in 2022 (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation

conscription for males aged 18-35; compulsory service times range from 4 months to up to a year, depending on the cadets educational and professional circumstances; women are permitted to serve in the armed forces, including as uniformed officers and pilots (2019)

Transportation :: Qatar

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 199 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 25,263,224 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,563,307,390 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

A7 (2016)


6 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 4 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 2 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

under 914 m: 1 (2013)


1 (2013)


288 km condensate, 221 km condensate/gas, 2383 km gas, 90 km liquid petroleum gas, 745 km oil, 103 km refined products (2013)


total: 7,039 km (2016)

Merchant marine

total: 136

by type: bulk carrier 9, container ship 6, general cargo 5, oil tanker 7, other 109 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Doha, Musay’id, Ra’s Laffan

LNG terminal(s) (export): Ras Laffan

Terrorism :: Qatar

Terrorist groups – foreign based

HAMAS: aim(s): continue engagement with the Qatari Government area(s) of operation: maintains a limited office in Doha (2018)

Transnational Issues :: Qatar

Disputes – international


Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 1,200 (2018)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Qatar is a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor, and, to a much lesser extent, forced prostitution; the predominantly foreign workforce migrates to Qatar legally for low- and semi-skilled work but often experiences situations of forced labor, including debt bondage, delayed or nonpayment of salaries, confiscation of passports, abuse, hazardous working conditions, and squalid living arrangements; foreign female domestic workers are particularly vulnerable to trafficking because of their isolation in private homes and lack of protection under Qatari labor laws; some women who migrate for work are also forced into prostitution

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List Qatar does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government investigated 11 trafficking cases but did not prosecute or convict any offenders, including exploitative employers and recruitment agencies; the primary solution for resolving labor violations was to transfer a workers sponsorship to a new employer with minimal effort to investigate whether a forced labor violation had occurred; authorities increased their efforts to protect some trafficking victims, although many victims of forced labor, particularly domestic workers, remained unidentified and unprotected and were sometimes punished for immigration violations or running away from an employer or sponsor; authorities visited worksites throughout the country to meet and educate workers and employers on trafficking regulations, but the government failed to abolish or reform the sponsorship system, perpetuating Qatars forced labor problem (2015)


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