Introduction :: Portugal


Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

Geography :: Portugal


Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates

39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references



total: 92,090 sq km

land: 91,470 sq km

water: 620 sq km

note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,224 km

border countries (1): Spain 1224 km


1,793 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains


mean elevation: 372 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7% (2011 est.)

arable land: 11.9% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 7.8% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 20% (2011 est.)

forest: 37.8% (2011 est.)

other: 22.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

5,400 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities

Natural hazards

Azores subject to severe earthquakes

volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment – current issues

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in urban centers and coastal areas

Environment – international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography – note

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society :: Portugal


10,302,674 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups

white homogeneous Mediterranean population; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990, Eastern Europeans have migrated to Portugal


Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)


Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% (2011 est.)

note: represents population 15 years of age and older

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.8

youth dependency ratio: 20.3

elderly dependency ratio: 35.5

potential support ratio: 2.8 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 44.6 years

male: 42.7 years

female: 46.5 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.25% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

8.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

10.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities


urban population: 66.3% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

2.957 million LISBON (capital), 1.313 million Porto (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

30.2 years (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.1 years

male: 77.9 years

female: 84.4 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.41 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

73.9% (2014)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

9% (2017)

Physicians density

5.12 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

0.5% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

41,000 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<500 (2018 est.)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

20.8% (2016)

Education expenditures

4.9% of GDP (2015)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.1%

male: 97.4%

female: 95.1% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 20.3%

male: 19.8%

female: 20.9% (2018 est.)

Government :: Portugal

Country name

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic

conventional short form: Portugal

local long form: Republica Portuguesa

local short form: Portugal

etymology: name derives from the Roman designation “Portus Cale” meaning “Port of Cale”; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Lisbon

geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Portugal has two time zones, including the Azores (UTC-1)

etymology: Lisbon is one of Europe’s oldest cities (the second oldest capital city after Athens) and the origin of the name is lost in time; it may have been founded as an ancient Celtic settlement that subsequently maintained close commercial relations with the Phoenicians (beginning about 1200 B.C.); the name of the settlement may have been derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River that runs through the city, Lisso or Lucio; the Romans named the city “Olisippo” when they took it from the Carthaginians in 205 B.C.; under the Visigoths the city name became “Ulixbona,” under the Arabs it was “al-Ushbuna”; the medieval version of “Lissabona” became today’s Lisboa

Administrative divisions

18 districts (distritos, singular – distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular – regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores), Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu


1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60 years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note – also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis DE CAMOES (1524-80) died


history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976

amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese-speaking country


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held on 31 January 2021); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president in the first round; percent of vote – Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 10.8%

note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members – 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad – directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) (e.g. 2019)

elections: last held on 6 October 2019 (next to be held 2023) (e.g. 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party – PS 36.4%, PSD 27.8%, B.E. 9.5%, CDU 6.5%, other 20.8%; seats by party – PS 108, PSD 79, B.E. 19, CDU 12, other 12; composition – men 158, women 72, percent of women 31.3% (e.g. 2019)

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges can serve for life; Constitutional Court judges – 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party (Partido do Centro Democratico Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Assuncao CRISTAS]
Ecologist Party “The Greens” or “Os Verdes” (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]
People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Andre SILVA]
Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD (original name Partido Popular Democratico) or PPD [Rui RIO]
Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Antonio COSTA]
The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Catarina MARTINS]
Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Domingos Teixeira de Abreu FEZAS VITAL (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: 1 332-3007

FAX: 1 223-3926
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco

consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador George E. GLASS (since 25 August 2017)

telephone: 351 727-3300

embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon

mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726

FAX: 351 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbol(s)

armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

National anthem


Economy :: Portugal

Economy – overview

Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community – the EU’s predecessor – in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members.

The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. After the global financial crisis in 2008, Portugals economy contracted in 2009 and fell into recession from 2011 to 2013, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. Portugal successfully exited its EU-IMF program in May 2014, and its economic recovery gained traction in 2015 because of strong exports and a rebound in private consumption. GDP growth accelerated in 2016, and probably reached 2.5 % in 2017. Unemployment remained high, at 9.7% in 2017, but has improved steadily since peaking at 18% in 2013.

The center-left minority Socialist government has unwound some unpopular austerity measures while managing to remain within most EU fiscal targets. The budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 1.8% in 2017, the countrys lowest since democracy was restored in 1974, and surpassing the EU and IMF projections of 3%. Portugal exited the EUs excessive deficit procedure in mid-2017.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$314.1 billion (2017 est.)
$305.9 billion (2016 est.)
$301 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$218 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

2.7% (2017 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$30,500 (2017 est.)
$29,600 (2016 est.)
$29,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

16.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 65.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 22.1% (2017 est.)

services: 75.7% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics

Industrial production growth rate

3.5% (2017 est.)

Labor force

5.233 million (2017 est.)

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 8.6%

industry: 23.9%

services: 67.5% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate

8.9% (2017 est.)
11.1% (2016 est.)

Population below poverty line

19% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 25.9% (2015 est.)


revenues: 93.55 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 100 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

42.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

125.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.6% (2017 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

$993 million (2017 est.)
$1.218 billion (2016 est.)


$61 billion (2017 est.)
$54.76 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

Spain 25.2%, France 12.5%, Germany 11.3%, UK 6.6%, US 5.2%, Netherlands 4% (2017)

Exports – commodities

agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals


$74.73 billion (2017 est.)
$64.98 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials

Imports – partners

Spain 32%, Germany 13.7%, France 7.4%, Italy 5.5%, Netherlands 5.4% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$26.11 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt – external

$449 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$447 billion (31 March 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar –
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Portugal

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

56.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

46.94 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

9.701 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – imports

4.616 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

20.56 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

25% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

35% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Crude oil – imports

285,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

323,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

247,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

143,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

78,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas – production

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

6.258 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

6.541 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

54.97 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Portugal

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5,073,458

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 49 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 11,859,548

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities; FttP in 2020; 3G universal and 4G upgrades; regulator release 700MHz spectrum for 5G use; DSL moves to fiber services; FttP for over 5 million customers in 2020 providing national coverage; fiber subscriber base grows 24% in 2018; development in M-payment solutions (2020)

domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations; fixed-line 49 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 115 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code – 351; landing points for the Ella Link, BUGIO, EIG, SAT-3/WASC, SeaMeWe-3, Equino, MainOne, Tat TGN-Western Europe, WACS, ACE, Atlantis2 and Columbus-III submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, South America and the US; satellite earth stations – 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 7,731,411

percent of population: 74.66% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 3,784,684

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Portugal

Military and security forces

Portuguese Armed Forces: Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP); Portuguese National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana, GNR) (2019)

note: the GNR is a national gendarmerie force comprised of military personnel with law enforcement, internal security, civil defense, disaster response, and coast guard duties; it is responsible to the Minister of Internal Administration and to the Minister of National Defense; in the event of war or crisis, it may be placed under the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces

Military expenditures

1.52% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.43% of GDP (2018)
1.25% of GDP (2017)
1.27% of GDP (2016)
1.33% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Portuguese Armed Forces have approximately 26,500 active duty personnel (13,000 Army; 7,500 Navy; 6,000 Air Force); 24,700 National Republican Guard (military personnel) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Portuguese Armed Forces inventory includes mostly European and US-origin weapons systems along with a smaller mix of domestically-produced equipment; since 2010, Germany and the US are the leading suppliers of armaments to Portugal; Portugal’s defense industry is primarily focused on shipbuilding (2019 est.)

Military deployments

190 Afghanistan (NATO); 200 Central African Republic (MINUSCA/EUTM); up to 120 Baltic States (NATO) (April 2020)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary or contract military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1992, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; contract service lasts for an initial period from two to six years, and can be extended to a maximum of 20 years of service. Voluntary military service lasts 12 months; reserve obligation to age 35 (2017)

Transportation :: Portugal

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 12 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 122 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,635,233 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 343,971,094 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

CR, CS (2016)


64 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 43 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2017)

under 914 m: 8 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 21 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

under 914 m: 20 (2013)


1344 km gas, 11 km oil, 188 km refined products (2013)


total: 3,075 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified) (2014)

other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)


total: 82,900 km (2008)

paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways) (2008)

unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)


210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 624

by type: bulk carrier 65, container ship 249, general cargo 99, oil tanker 21, other 190 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines

container port(s) (TEUs): Sines (1,669,057) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Sines

Transnational Issues :: Portugal

Disputes – international

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 14 (2018)

Illicit drugs

seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

Source: https://www.cia.gov

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