Introduction :: Peru


Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI’s election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president’s increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government – Peru’s first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016. Facing impeachment after evidence surfaced of his involvement in a vote-buying scandal, President KUCZYNSKI offered his resignation on 21 March 2018. Two days later, First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo was sworn in as president. On 30 September 2019, President VIZCARRA invoked his constitutional authority to dissolve Peru’s Congress after months of battling with the body over anticorruption reforms. New congressional elections are scheduled for 26 January 2020.

Geography :: Peru


Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates

10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references

South America


total: 1,285,216 sq km

land: 1,279,996 sq km

water: 5,220 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 7,062 km

border countries (5): Bolivia 1212 km, Brazil 2659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1494 km, Ecuador 1529 km


2,414 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm


varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes


western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)


mean elevation: 1,555 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,746 m

Natural resources

copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use

agricultural land: 18.8% (2011 est.)

arable land: 3.1% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 1.1% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 14.6% (2011 est.)

forest: 53% (2011 est.)

other: 28.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

25,800 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country’s Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated

Natural hazards

earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country’s most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane; see note 2 under “Geography – note”

Environment – current issues

deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes; overfishing

Environment – international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

note 1: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world’s highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

note 2: Peru is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world’s earthquakes and some 75% of the world’s volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 3: on 19 February 1600, Mount Huaynaputina in the southern Peruvian Andes erupted in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historical times; intermittent eruptions lasted until 5 March 1600 and pumped an estimated 16 to 32 million metric tons of particulates into the atmosphere reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the earth’s surface and affecting weather worldwide; over the next two and a half years, millions died around the globe in famines from bitterly cold winters, cool summers, and the loss of crops and animals

note 4: the southern regions of Peru and the extreme northwestern part of Bolivia are considered to be the place of origin for the common potato

People and Society :: Peru


31,914,989 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups

mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, white 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)


Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none .1%, unspecified .7% (2017 est.)


Roman Catholic 60%, Christian 14.6% (includes evangelical 11.1%, other 3.5%), other .3%, none 4%, unspecified 21.1% (2017 est.)

Demographic profile

Peru’s urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru’s malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.

Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent – among the largest in Latin America – are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.2

youth dependency ratio: 37.1

elderly dependency ratio: 13.1

potential support ratio: 7.6 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 29.1 years

male: 28.3 years

female: 29.9 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.92% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

17 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country’s Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated


urban population: 78.3% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 1.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

10.719 million LIMA (capital), 923,000 Arequipa, 865,000 Trujillo (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

22.2 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

88 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.7 years

male: 72.6 years

female: 76.9 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

75.4% (2017)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 95.6% of population

rural: 77.4% of population

total: 92.1% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 4.4% of population

rural: 22.6% of population

total: 7.9% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

5% (2017)

Physicians density

1.3 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

1.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 92.2% of population

rural: 60.8% of population

total: 85.2% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 7.8% of population

rural: 14.8% of population (2017 est.)

total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

0.3% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

79,000 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

1,000 (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Peru; as of 16 September 2020, Peru has reported 733,860 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 30,812 deaths, the second largest outbreak in South America after Brazil; at this time, there are no specific limitations or quarantine requirements for US citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents entering the US from Peru; on 3 June 2020, Peruvian President Martn Vizcarra signed a supreme decree extending Perus Health State of Emergency for 90 days beginning Wednesday, 10 June 2020; this is not an extension of the national quarantine, although social distancing and the use of facemasks will be required for the foreseeable future

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

19.7% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

3.2% (2017)

Education expenditures

3.9% of GDP (2017)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.4%

male: 97.1%

female: 91.7% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.7%

male: 14.3%

female: 15% (2018 est.)

Government :: Peru

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru

etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word “biru” meaning “river”

Government type

presidential republic


name: Lima

geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the word “Lima” derives from the Spanish pronunciation of “Limaq,” the native name for the valley in which the city was founded in 1535; “limaq” means “talker” in coastal Quechua and referred to an oracle that was situated in the valley but which was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church

Administrative divisions

25 regions (regiones, singular – region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region


28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 28-29 July (1821)


history: several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993

amendments: proposed by Congress, by the president of the republic with the approval of the “Cabinet, ” or by petition of at least 0.3% of voters; passage requires absolute majority approval by the Congress membership, followed by approval in a referendum; a referendum is not required if Congress approves the amendment by greater than two-thirds majority vote in each of two successive sessions; amended many times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years


18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

Executive branch

chief of state: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 23 March 2018); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President (vacant); note – the 21 March 2018 resignation of President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016) was accepted by parliament on 23 March 2018; the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 23 March 2018); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President (vacant)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with a runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round – Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (Broad Front) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (Popular Action) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round – Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

note: Prime Minister Vicente Antonio ZEBALLOS Salinas (since 30 September 2019) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve single 5-year terms); note – a referendum held in December 2018 banned congressional reelection, holding members to a single consecutive term

elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); note – President VIZCARRA dissolved the Congress on 30 September 2019 and called new congressional elections for 26 January 2020; the new Congress will serve an abbreviated term, with the next regular election to be held in April 2021

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition – Fuerza Popular 36.3%, PPK 16.5%, Frente Amplio 13.9%, APP 9.2%; APRA 8.3%; AP 7.2%, other 8.6%; seats by party/coalition – Fuerza Popular 73, Frente Amplio 20, PPK 18, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5; composition – men 94, women 36, percent of women 27.7%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Board of Justice (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA
Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad) (coalition includes Nuevo Peru [Veronika Mendoza], Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (coalition includes Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]
Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]

International organization participation

APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Hugo DE ZELA Martnez (since 8 July 2019)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: 1 833-9860 through 9869

FAX: 1 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Krishna R. URS (since 18 October 2017)

telephone: 51 618-2000

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

FAX: 51 618-2397

Flag description

three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace

National symbol(s)

vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white

National anthem


Economy :: Peru

Economy – overview

Peru’s economy reflects its varied topography – an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru’s coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world’s second largest producer of silver and copper.

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru’s metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country’s total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2017, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru’s strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

Peru’s rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru’s non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Perus lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

Peru’s free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016-17, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2018. However, economic performance was depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm. Massive flooding in early 2017 also was a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$430.3 billion (2017 est.)
$420 billion (2016 est.)
$403.7 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$214.2 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

2.5% (2017 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$13,500 (2017 est.)
$13,300 (2016 est.)
$13,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

19.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
19% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 64.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 24% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 32.7% (2017 est.)

services: 59.9% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigolds, onions, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish


mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture

Industrial production growth rate

2.7% (2017 est.)

Labor force

17.03 million (2017 est.)

note: individuals older than 14 years of age

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 17.4%

services: 56.8% (2011)

Unemployment rate

6.9% (2017 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment

Population below poverty line

22.7% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)


revenues: 58.06 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 64.81 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

27.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

25.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.8% (2017 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)

note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average

Current account balance

-$2.414 billion (2017 est.)
-$5.239 billion (2016 est.)


$44.92 billion (2017 est.)
$37.02 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

China 26.5%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 5.2%, South Korea 4.4%, Spain 4.1%, India 4.1% (2017)

Exports – commodities

copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys


$38.65 billion (2017 est.)
$35.13 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines

Imports – partners

China 22.3%, US 20.1%, Brazil 6%, Mexico 4.4% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$63.83 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$61.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$66.25 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$66.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar –
3.265 (2017 est.)
3.3751 (2016 est.)
3.3751 (2015 est.)
3.185 (2014 est.)
2.8383 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Peru

Electricity access

population without electricity: 2 million (2017)

electrification – total population: 95% (2017)
electrification – urban areas: 97% (2017)
electrification – rural areas: 89% (2017)

Electricity – production

50.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

44.61 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

55 million kWh (2015 est.)

Electricity – imports

22 million kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

14.73 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

61% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

35% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

49,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

7,995 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – imports

86,060 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

434.9 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

166,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

250,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

62,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

65,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas – production

12.99 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

7.483 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

5.505 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

455.9 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

55.94 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Peru

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,082,036

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2017 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 38,915,386

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2017 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: good mobile operator competition with LTE services; broadband subscriber penetration low compared to other Latin American countries; 3G network and new LTE services expanded providing mobile broadband to rural communities, regulator auctions of 700 MHz spectrum for LTE services; Peru is seen as a potential market for growth in broadband, with government work to install fiber-optic backbone to remote areas (2020)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, now 125 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (2018)

international: country code – 51; landing points for the SAM-1, IGW, American Movil-Telxius, SAC and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2019)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 16,461,427

percent of population: 52.54% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 2,310,217

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2017 est.)

Military and Security :: Peru

Military and security forces

Joint Command of the Armed Forces of Peru: Peruvian Army (Ejercito del Peru), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP); Ministry of the Interior (Ministerio del Interior): Peruvian National Police (Polica Nacional del Per, PNP) (2020)

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.2% of GDP (2018)
1.2% of GDP (2017)
1.3% of GDP (2016)
1.7% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

Peruvian military size estimates vary widely; approximately 95,000 active personnel (55,000 Army; 25,000 Navy; 15,000 Air Force) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Peruvian military’s inventory is a mix of mostly older equipment from a wide variety of suppliers, including Brazil, Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the US; the leading suppliers of military equipment since 2010 are Italy, Russia, and South Korea (2019 est.)

Military deployments

210 Central African Republic (MINUSCA) (April 2020)

Military service age and obligation

18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2013)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Peru are a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2018, four attacks against commercial vessels were reported, a slight increase from the two reported in 2017; most of these occured in the main port of Callao

Transportation :: Peru

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 7 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 13,907,948 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 223,643,434 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

OB (2016)


191 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 59 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 12 (2017)

under 914 m: 5 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 132 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 30 (2013)

under 914 m: 82 (2013)


5 (2013)


786 km extra heavy crude, 1526 km gas, 679 km liquid petroleum gas, 1033 km oil, 15 km refined products (2013)


total: 1,854 km (2014)

standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified) (2014)

narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)


total: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved) (2012)

note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved)


8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon River system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 98

by type: bulk carrier 1, oil tanker 10, other 87 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita

oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal

container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (2,250,200) (2017)
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)

Terrorism :: Peru

Terrorist groups – home based

Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL): aim(s): generate revenue by providing security for narcotics trafficking and growing coca to produce cocaine; historically, SL’s goal has been to replace Peruvian institutions with a peasant revolutionary regime area(s) of operation: headquartered in the Valley of the Apurimac, Ene, and Mantaro River (VRAEM) region (2018)

Transnational Issues :: Peru

Disputes – international

Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru’s November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru’s shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia’s claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 959,631 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2020)

IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2019)

Illicit drugs

until 1996 the world’s largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world’s second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 44,000 hectares in 2016, a decrease of 16 per cent over 2015; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 410 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2016; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption


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