Introduction :: Mexico


The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations – including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec – Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate – Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) – defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. Left-leaning antiestablishment politician and former mayor of Mexico City (2000-05) Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR, from the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), became president in December 2018.

The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico’s powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.

Geography :: Mexico


North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates

23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references

North America


total: 1,964,375 sq km

land: 1,943,945 sq km

water: 20,430 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 4,389 km

border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3155 km


9,330 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


varies from tropical to desert


high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert


mean elevation: 1,111 m

lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m

Natural resources

petroleum, silver, antimony, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use

agricultural land: 54.9% (2011 est.)

arable land: 11.8% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 1.4% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 41.7% (2011 est.)

forest: 33.3% (2011 est.)

other: 11.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

65,000 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City

Natural hazards

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico’s most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see note 2 under “Geography – note”

Environment – current issues

scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues

Environment – international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

note 1: strategic location on southern border of the US; Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world’s earthquakes and some 75% of the world’s volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

note 2: the “Three Sisters” companion plants – winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans – served as the main agricultural crops for various North American Indian groups; all three apparently originated in Mexico but then were widely disseminated through much of North America; vanilla, the world’s most popular aroma and flavor spice, also emanates from Mexico

note 3: the Sac Actun cave system at 348 km (216 mi) is the longest underwater cave in the world and the second longest cave worldwide, after Mammoth Cave in the United States (see “Geography – note” under United States)

note 4: the prominent Yucatan Peninsula that divides the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea is shared by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize; just on the northern coast of Yucatan, near the town of Chicxulub (pronounce cheek-sha-loob), lie the remnants of a massive crater (some 150 km in diameter and extending well out into the Gulf of Mexico); formed by an asteroid or comet when it struck the earth 66 million years ago, the impact is now widely accepted as initiating a worldwide climate disruption that caused a mass extinction of 75% of all the earth’s plant and animal species – including the non-avian dinosaurs

People and Society :: Mexico


128,649,565 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Mexican(s)

adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups

mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)

note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity


Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2005)

note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages


Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah’s Witness 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.3

youth dependency ratio: 38.8

elderly dependency ratio: 11.4

potential support ratio: 8.7 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 29.3 years

male: 28.2 years

female: 30.4 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.04% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

17.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City


urban population: 80.7% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

21.782 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.179 million Guadalajara, 4.874 million Monterrey, 3.195 million Puebla, 2.467 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.140 million Tijuana (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

21.3 years (2008 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

33 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 12 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.7 years

male: 73.9 years

female: 79.6 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.19 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

66.9% (2015)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 96.6% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 3.4% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

5.5% (2017)

Physicians density

2.38 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2015)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 99.3% of population

rural: 91.9% of population

total: 97.8% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0.7% of population

rural: 8.1% of population

total: 2.2% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

0.2% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

230,000 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

4,000 (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Mexico; sustained community spread means that people have been infected with the virus, but how or where they became infected is not known, and the spread is ongoing; illness with this virus has ranged from mild to severe with fatalities reported; as of 5 August 2020, Mexico has reported 443,813 confirmed cases of COVID19 with 48,012 deaths

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

28.9% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

4.2% (2016)

Education expenditures

4.9% of GDP (2016)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.4%

male: 95.8%

female: 94.6% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 6.9%

male: 6.5%

female: 7.6% (2018 est.)

Government :: Mexico

Country name

conventional long form: United Mexican States

conventional short form: Mexico

local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos

local short form: Mexico

etymology: named after the capital city, whose name stems from the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

Government type

federal presidential republic


name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)

geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

note: Mexico has four time zones

etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain

Administrative divisions

32 states (estados, singular – estado); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas


16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 16 September (1810)


history: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917

amendments: proposed by the Congress of the Union; passage requires approval by at least two thirds of the members present and approval by a majority of the state legislatures; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: not specified

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note – appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held in July 2024)
election results: Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote – Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA (PAN) 22.3%, Jose Antonio MEADE Kuribrena (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRIGUEZ Calderon 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of:

Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
Senate – last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held on 1 July 2024)
Chamber of Deputies – last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held on 1 July 2021)
election results:
Senate – percent of vote by party – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – MORENA 58, PAN 22, PRI 14, PRD 9, MC 7, PT 7, PES 5, PVEM 5, PNA/PANAL 1; composition – men 65, women 63, percent of women 49.3%
Chamber of Deputies – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – MORENA 193, PAN 79, PT 61, PES 58, PRI 42, MC 26, PRD 23, PVEM 17, PNA/PANAL 1; composition – men 259, women 241, percent of women 48.2%; note – total National Congress percent of women 48.4%

note: for the 2018 election, senators will be eligible for a second term and deputies up to 4 consecutive terms

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president, and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve 15-year terms; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts

Note: in mid-February 2020, the Mexican president endorsed a bill on judicial reform, which proposes changes to 7 articles of the constitution and the issuance of a new Organic Law on the Judicial Branch of the Federation

Political parties and leaders

Citizen’s Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Clemente CASTANEDA]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Claudia RUIZ Massieu]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Carlos Alberto PUENTE Salas]
Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Andres Manuel LOPEZ Obrador]
National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Damian ZEPEDA Vidales]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Manuel GRANADOS]

International organization participation

APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Martha BARCENA Coqui (since 11 January 2019); note – Ambassador BARCENA Coqui is Mexico’a first-ever female ambassador to the US

chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: 1 728-1600

FAX: 1 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)

consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas, Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), Minneapolis (MN), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note – Washington DC Consular Section is located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher LANDAU (since 26 August 2019)

telephone: (011) 52-55-5080-2000

embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal

mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000

FAX: (011) 52-55-5080-2005
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico’s coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of green and red, and does not display anything in its white band

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem


Economy :: Mexico

Economy – overview

Mexico’s $2.4 trillion economy 11th largest in the world – has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force in 1994. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal.

Mexico has become the US’ second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2017, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $623 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of its trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia, and Chile.

Mexico’s current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, has emphasized economic reforms, passing and implementing sweeping energy, financial, fiscal, and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Since 2015, Mexico has held public auctions of oil and gas exploration and development rights and for long-term electric power generation contracts. Mexico has also issued permits for private sector import, distribution, and retail sales of refined petroleum products in an effort to attract private investment into the energy sector and boost production.

Since 2013, Mexicos economic growth has averaged 2% annually, falling short of private-sector expectations that President PENA NIETOs sweeping reforms would bolster economic prospects. Growth is predicted to remain below potential given falling oil production, weak oil prices, structural issues such as low productivity, high inequality, a large informal sector employing over half of the workforce, weak rule of law, and corruption. Mexicos economy remains vulnerable to uncertainty surrounding the future of NAFTA because the United States is its top trading partner and the two countries share integrated supply chains and to potential shifts in domestic policies following the inauguration of a new a president in December 2018.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.463 trillion (2017 est.)
$2.413 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.346 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.151 trillion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

2% (2017 est.)
2.9% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$19,900 (2017 est.)
$19,700 (2016 est.)
$19,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

21.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 67% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 37.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.9% (2017 est.)

services: 64.5% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products


food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

-0.6% (2017 est.)

Labor force

54.51 million (2017 est.)

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 13.4%

industry: 24.1%

services: 61.9% (2011)

Unemployment rate

3.4% (2017 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)

note: underemployment may be as high as 25%

Population below poverty line

46.2% (2014 est.)

note: from a food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40% (2014)


revenues: 261.4 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 273.8 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

22.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

54.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
56.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

6% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

-$19.35 billion (2017 est.)
-$23.32 billion (2016 est.)


$409.8 billion (2017 est.)
$374.3 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

US 79.9% (2017)

Exports – commodities

manufactured goods, electronics, vehicles and auto parts, oil and oil products, silver, plastics, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton; Mexico is the world’s leading producer of silver


$420.8 billion (2017 est.)
$387.4 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts, plastics, natural gas and oil products

Imports – partners

US 46.4%, China 17.7%, Japan 4.3% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$175.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$178.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: Mexico also maintains access to an $88 million Flexible Credit Line with the IMF

Debt – external

$445.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$450.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar –
18.26 (2017 est.)
18.664 (2016 est.)
18.664 (2015 est.)
15.848 (2014 est.)
13.292 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Mexico

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

302.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

258.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

7.308 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – imports

3.532 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

72.56 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

71% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

17% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

1.852 million bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

1.214 million bbl/day (2017 est.)

Crude oil – imports

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

6.63 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

844,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

1.984 million bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

155,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

867,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Natural gas – production

31.57 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

81.61 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

36.81 million cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

50.12 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

279.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

454.1 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Mexico

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 21,645,699

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 120,173,510

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; relatively low broadband and mobile penetration, potential for growth; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable; two main MNOs despite efforts for competition; 5G development slow given the existing capabilities of LTE; Mexicos first local Internet Exchange Point opens in Mexico City; regulator strives to bring competition and foreign investment to Mexico; regulator brings back SIM card registration program (2020)

domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 17 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 95 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations (2018)

international: country code – 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the ARCOS-1 and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations – 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2016)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable, and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

telecom reform in 2013 enabled the creation of new broadcast television channels after decades of a quasi-monopoly; Mexico has 821 TV stations and 1,745 radio stations and most are privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available; in 2016, Mexico became the first country in Latin America to complete the transition from analog to digital transmissions, allowing for better image and audio quality and a wider selection of programming from networks

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 82,843,369

percent of population: 65.77% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 18,359,028

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Mexico

Military and security forces

Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, SEDENA): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, SEMAR): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM), includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)); Ministry of Security and Citizen Protection: Federal Police (includes Gendarmerie), National Guard (2019)

note: the National Guard was formed in 2019 and consists of personnel from the Federal Police and military police units of the Army and Navy

Military expenditures

0.5% of GDP (2019)
0.54% of GDP (2018)
0.47% of GDP (2017)
0.56% of GDP (2016)
0.66% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Mexican armed forces have approximately 270,000 active personnel (200,000 Army; 60,000 Navy; 8,000 Air Force); approximately 60,000 National Guard (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Mexican military inventory includes a mix of domestically-produced and imported equipment from a variety of mostly Western suppliers; since 2010, France, Spain, and the US are the leading suppliers of military hardware to Mexico; Mexico’s defense industry produces naval vessels and light armored vehicles (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory military service (selection for service determined by lottery), conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2012)

Transportation :: Mexico

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 16 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 370

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 64,569,640 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,090,380,000 mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

XA (2016)


1,714 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 243 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 12 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 32 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 80 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 86 (2017)

under 914 m: 33 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 1,471 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 42 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 281 (2013)

under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)


1 (2013)


15,986 km natural gas (2019), 10,365 km oil (2017), 8,946 km refined products (2016)


total: 20,825 km (2017)

standard gauge: 20,825 km 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified) (2017)


total: 398,148 km (2017)

paved: 174,911 km (includes 10,362 km of expressways) (2017)

unpaved: 223,237 km (2017)


2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country’s east coast) (2012)

Merchant marine

total: 637

by type: bulk carrier 6, general cargo 10, oil tanker 35, other 586 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz

oil terminal(s): Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal

cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada

container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (2,830,370), Lazaro Cardenas (1,149,079) (2017)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada

Transnational Issues :: Mexico

Disputes – international

abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the US; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,155 (El Salvador) (2018); 73,494 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum, are recognized as refugees, or have received alternative legal stay) (2020)

IDPs: 345,000 (government’s quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government’s military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2019)
stateless persons: 13 (2018)

Illicit drugs

major drug-producing and transit nation; Mexico is estimated to be the world’s third largest producer of opium with poppy cultivation in 2015 estimated to be 28,000 hectares yielding a potential production of 475 metric tons of raw opium; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market


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