Introduction :: Kyrgyzstan


A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in 2005 and 2010 resulted in the ouster of the countrys first two presidents, Askar AKAEV and Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Interim President Roza OTUNBAEVA led a transitional government and following a nation-wide election, President Almazbek ATAMBAEV was sworn in as president in 2011. In 2017, ATAMBAEV became the first Kyrgyzstani president to step down after serving one full six-year term as required in the countrys constitution. Former prime minister and ruling Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan member Sooronbay JEENBEKOV replaced him after winning an October 2017 presidential election that was the most competitive in the countrys history, although international and local election observers noted cases of vote buying and abuse of public resources. The president holds substantial powers as head of state even though the prime minister oversees the Kyrgyzstani Government and selects most cabinet members. The president represents the country internationally and can sign or veto laws, call for new elections, and nominate Supreme Court judges, cabinet members for posts related to security or defense, and numerous other high-level positions. Continuing concerns for the Kyrgyz Republic include the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, a history of tense, and at times violent, interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.

Geography :: Kyrgyzstan


Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates

41 00 N, 75 00 E

Map references



total: 199,951 sq km

land: 191,801 sq km

water: 8,150 sq km

Area – comparative

slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries

total: 4,573 km

border countries (4): China 1063 km, Kazakhstan 1212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1314 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone


peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country


mean elevation: 2,988 m

lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar’ya) 132 m

highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m

Natural resources

abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land use

agricultural land: 55.4% (2011 est.)

arable land: 6.7% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 0.4% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 48.3% (2011 est.)

forest: 5.1% (2011 est.)

other: 39.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

10,233 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains

Natural hazards

major flooding during snow melt; prone to earthquakes

Environment – current issues

water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices; air pollution due to rapid increase of traffic

Environment – international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

People and Society :: Kyrgyzstan


5,964,897 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)

adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic groups

Kyrgyz 73.5%, Uzbek 14.7%, Russian 5.5%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.2% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2019 est.)


Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)


Muslim 90% (majority Sunni), Christian 7% (Russian Orthodox 3%), other 3% (includes Jewish, Buddhist, Baha’i) (2017 est.)

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 59.7

youth dependency ratio: 52.1

elderly dependency ratio: 7.5

potential support ratio: 13.2 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 27.3 years

male: 26.1 years

female: 28.5 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.96% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

20.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

-5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains


urban population: 36.9% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 2.03% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

1.038 million BISHKEK (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

23.2 years (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 27.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.8 years

male: 67.7 years

female: 76.2 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.54 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

42% (2014)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 97.1% of population

rural: 84.4% of population

total: 89.3% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 2.9% of population

rural: 15.6% of population

total: 10.7% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

6.2% (2017)

Physicians density

2.21 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

4.4 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 99.6% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.3% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0.4% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

0.2% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

8,500 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<200 (2018 est.)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

16.6% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2.8% (2014)

Education expenditures

7.2% of GDP (2017)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.6%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.5% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.2%

male: 10.1%

female: 22.3% (2018 est.)

Government :: Kyrgyzstan

Country name

conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic

conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan

local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy

local short form: Kyrgyzstan

former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: a combination of the Turkic words “kyrg” (forty) and “-yz” (tribes) with the Persian suffix “-stan” (country) creating the meaning “Land of the Forty Tribes”; the name refers to the 40 clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Bishkek

geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: founded in 1868 as a Russian settlement on the site of a previously destroyed fortress named “Pishpek”; the name was retained and overtime became “Bishkek”

Administrative divisions

7 provinces (oblustar, singular – oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular – shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 31 August (1991)


history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note – constitutional amendments that bolstered some presidential powers and transferred others from the president to the prime minister passed in a referendum in December 2016, effective December 2017

amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017

Legal system

civil law system, which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 24 November 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Kubatbek BORONOV (since 17 June 2020); note – Prime Minister Kubatbek BORONOV resigned on 6 October 2020

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 15 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2023); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council
election results: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president in first round; percent of vote – Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (SDPK) 54.2%, Omurbek BABANOV (Respublika) 33.5%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (Butun Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, Temir SARIYEV (Akshumar) 2.5%, other 3.2%; Kubatbek BORONOV approved as interim prime minister 105-2

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; parties directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members selected from party lists to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 October 2020 (next to be held NA); note – the results of the 2020 election were annulled on 6 October 2020 following mass protests

election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NA

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts

subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts

Political parties and leaders

Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Almambet SHYKMAMATOV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAYMANOV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BAATYRBEKOV]
Onuguu-Progress (Development-Progress) [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Jyrgalbek TURUSKULOV] (parliamentary faction)
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Almazbek ATAMBAEV, Isa OMURKULOV]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Bolot I. OTUNBAEV (since 8 April 2018)
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: 1 449-9822

FAX: 1 449-8275
honorary consulate(s): Maple Valley (WA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Donald LU (since 18 September 2018)

telephone: 996 597-000

embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016

mailing address: use embassy street address

FAX: 996 597-744

Flag description

red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a “tunduk” – the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth

National symbol(s)

white falcon; national colors: red, yellow

National anthem


Economy :: Kyrgyzstan

Economy – overview

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and – in some years – electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nations largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to more than one-quarter of Kyrgyzstans GDP.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis and declining oil prices have dampened economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP.

Kyrgyz leaders hope the countrys August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. Large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow to develop. Many Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians complain that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states are hurting certain sectors of the Kyrgyz economy, such as meat and dairy production, in which they have comparative advantage. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to meet EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs believe this process as disjointed and incomplete. Kyrgyzstans economic development continues to be hampered by corruption, lack of administrative transparency, lack of diversity in domestic industries, and difficulty attracting foreign aid and investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$23.15 billion (2017 est.)
$22.14 billion (2016 est.)
$21.22 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$7.565 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

4.6% (2017 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$3,700 (2017 est.)
$3,600 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

27.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 85.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 33.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 39.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -79% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 14.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.2% (2017 est.)

services: 54.2% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool


small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Industrial production growth rate

10.9% (2017 est.)

Labor force

2.841 million (2017 est.)

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 48%

industry: 12.5%

services: 39.5% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.1% (2017 est.)
7.2% (2016 est.)

Population below poverty line

32.1% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)


revenues: 2.169 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 2.409 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

28.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

56% of GDP (2017 est.)
55.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.2% (2017 est.)
0.4% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

-$306 million (2017 est.)
-$792 million (2016 est.)


$1.84 billion (2017 est.)
$1.544 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

Switzerland 59.1%, Uzbekistan 9.4%, Kazakhstan 5.1%, Russia 4.9%, UK 4% (2017)

Exports – commodities

gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes


$4.187 billion (2017 est.)
$3.709 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports – partners

China 32.6%, Russia 24.8%, Kazakhstan 16.4%, Turkey 4.8%, US 4.2% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.177 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$8.164 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$8.182 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

soms (KGS) per US dollar –
68.35 (2017 est.)
69.914 (2016 est.)
69.914 (2015 est.)
64.462 (2014 est.)
53.654 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Kyrgyzstan

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

13.04 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

10.52 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

184 million kWh (2015 est.)

Electricity – imports

331 million kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

4.046 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

24% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

76% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

1,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – imports

4,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

40 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

6,996 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

37,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

2,290 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

34,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas – production

28.32 million cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

186.9 million cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

169.9 million cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

10.02 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Kyrgyzstan

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 331,140

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 8,735,246

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 149 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: fixed-line phones declining quickly by roll-out of 4G LTE mobile networks; digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links; low fixed-line and fixed-broadband penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration; international connectivity continues to grow; 4 mobile networks in operation; 4G networks cover over 50% of the nation, eventually 5G networks will be available (2020 )

domestic: fixed-line penetration 6 per 100 persons remains low and concentrated in urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 149 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code – 996; connections with other CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States, 9 members post-Soviet Republics in EU) countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations – 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

state-funded public TV broadcaster KTRK has nationwide coverage; also operates Ala-Too 24 news channel which broadcasts 24/7 and 4 other educational, cultural, and sports channels; ELTR and Channel 5 are state-owned stations with national reach; the switchover to digital TV in 2017 resulted in private TV station growth; approximately 20 stations are struggling to increase their own content up to 50% of airtime, as required by law, instead of rebroadcasting primarily programs from Russian channels or airing unlicensed movies and music; 3 Russian TV stations also broadcast; state-funded radio stations and about 10 significant private radio stations also exist (2019)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 2,222,732

percent of population: 38% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 355,640

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Kyrgyzstan

Military and security forces

Kyrgyz Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Defense Forces, National Guard; State Border Service; Internal Troops (2019)

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2019)
1.6% of GDP (2018)
1.6% of GDP (2017)
1.7% of GDP (2016)
1.8% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Kyrgyz Armed Forces have approximately 11,000 active duty troops (8,500 Land Forces; 2,500 Air Force/Air Defense) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Kyrgyz Armed Forces’ inventory is comprised of older Russian and Soviet-era equipment; outside of a small delivery by China in 2019, Russia continues to be the only supplier of weapons systems to Kyrgyzstan (2020)

Military deployments

contributes a battalion-sized unit to CSTO’s Rapid Reaction Force (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation (9 months for university graduates), with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2016)

Transportation :: Kyrgyzstan

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 17

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 709,198 (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

EX (2016)


28 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 18 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2017)

under 914 m: 3 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 10 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

under 914 m: 8 (2013)


3566 km gas (2018), 16 km oil (2013)


total: 424 km (2018)

broad gauge: 424 km 1.520-m gauge (2018)


total: 34,000 km (2018)


600 km (2010)

Ports and terminals

lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach’ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)

Transnational Issues :: Kyrgyzstan

Disputes – international

disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of approximately 15% or 200 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas

Illicit drugs

limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates


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