El Salvador

Introduction :: El Salvador


El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms. El Salvador is beset by one of the world’s highest homicide rates and pervasive criminal gangs.

Geography :: El Salvador


Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates

13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 21,041 sq km

land: 20,721 sq km

water: 320 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 590 km

border countries (2): Guatemala 199 km, Honduras 391 km


307 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm


tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands


mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau


mean elevation: 442 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources

hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 74.7% (2011 est.)

arable land: 33.1% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 10.9% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 30.7% (2011 est.)

forest: 13.6% (2011 est.)

other: 11.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

452 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

athough it is the smallest country in land area in Central America, El Salvador has a population that is 18 times larger than Belize; at least 20% of the population lives abroad; high population density country-wide, with particular concentration around the capital of San Salvador

Natural hazards

known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes

volcanism: significant volcanic activity; San Salvador (1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country’s capital, which lies just below the volcano’s slopes; San Miguel (2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana

Environment – current issues

deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes

Environment – international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography – note

smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on the Caribbean Sea

People and Society :: El Salvador


6,481,102 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Salvadoran(s)

adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups

mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)


Spanish (official), Nawat (among some Amerindians)


Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador’s fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador – its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean – but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.

Salvadorans fled during the 1979 to 1992 civil war mainly to the United States but also to Canada and to neighboring Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Emigration to the United States increased again in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of deteriorating economic conditions, natural disasters (Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001), and family reunification. At least 20% of El Salvador’s population lives abroad. The remittances they send home account for close to 20% of GDP, are the second largest source of external income after exports, and have helped reduce poverty.

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 54.4

youth dependency ratio: 41.1

elderly dependency ratio: 13.4

potential support ratio: 7.5 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 27.7 years

male: 26.2 years

female: 29.3 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.83% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

18.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

-4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

athough it is the smallest country in land area in Central America, El Salvador has a population that is 18 times larger than Belize; at least 20% of the population lives abroad; high population density country-wide, with particular concentration around the capital of San Salvador


urban population: 73.4% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

1.106 million SAN SALVADOR (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.73 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

20.8 years (2008 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 11.8 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.8 years

male: 71.3 years

female: 78.6 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.09 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

72% (2014)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 92.2% of population

total: 97.4% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 7.8% of population

total: 2.6% of population (2015 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

7.2% (2017)

Physicians density

1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

1.2 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 99.8% of population

rural: 94.7% of population

total: 98.3% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0.2% of population

rural: 5.3% of population

total: 1.7% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

0.6% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

25,000 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<1000 (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

24.6% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

5% (2014)

Education expenditures

3.8% of GDP (2017)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.5%

male: 90.6%

female: 86.7% (2017)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 9.6%

male: 8.4%

female: 11.7% (2018)

Government :: El Salvador

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador

conventional short form: El Salvador

local long form: Republica de El Salvador

local short form: El Salvador

etymology: name is an abbreviation of the original Spanish conquistador designation for the area “Provincia de Nuestro Senor Jesus Cristo, el Salvador del Mundo” (Province of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the World), which became simply “El Salvador” (The Savior)

Government type

presidential republic


name: San Salvador

geographic coordinates: 13 42 N, 89 12 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Spanish for “Holy Savior” (referring to Jesus Christ)

Administrative divisions

14 departments (departamentos, singular – departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan


15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


history: many previous; latest drafted 16 December 1983, enacted 23 December 1983

amendments: proposals require agreement by absolute majority of the Legislative Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; constitutional articles on basic principles, and citizen rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil law system with minor common law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 5-year term; election last held on 3 February 2019 (next to be held on February 2024)
election results: Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez elected president – Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (GANA) 53.1%, Carlos CALLEJA Hakker (ARENA) 31.72%, Hugo MARTINEZ (FMLN) 14.41%, other 0.77%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies and a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 3-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party – ARENA 42.3%, FMLN 24.4%, GANA 11.5%, PCN 10.8%, PDC 3.2%, CD 0.9%, Independent 0.7%, other 6.2%; seats by party – ARENA 37, FMLN 23, GANA 11, PCN 8, PDC 3, CD 1, independent 1; composition -men 58, women 26, percent of women 31%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 16 judges and 16 substitutes judges organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, and Administrative Conflict Chambers)

judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Legislative Assembly on the recommendation of both the National Council of the Judicature, an independent body elected by the Legislative Assembly, and the Bar Association; judges elected for 9-year terms, with renewal of one-third of membership every 3 years; consecutive reelection is allowed

subordinate courts: Appellate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Courts of Peace

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo Antonio PARKER Soto]
Democratic Change (Cambio Democratico) or CD [Douglas AVILES] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU)
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]
Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Jose Andres ROVIRA Caneles]
National Coalition Party or PCN [Manuel RODRIGUEZ]
Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Mauricio INTERIANO]
Nuevas Ideas [Federico Gerardo ANLIKER]

International organization participation

BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Werner Matias ROMERO Guerra (since 9 June 2019)
chancery: 1400 16th Street NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: 1 595-7500

FAX: 1 232-1928
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Brentwood (NY), Chicago, Dallas, Doral (FL), Doraville (GA), Houston, Las Vegas (NV), Los Angeles, McAllen (TX), New York, Nogales (AZ), San Francisco, Silver Spring (MD), Tucson (AZ), Washington, DC, Woodbridge (VA)

consulate(s): Elizabeth (NJ), Newark (NJ), Seattle, Woodbridge (VA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald D. JOHNSON (since 6 September 2019)

telephone: [503] 2501-2999

embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador

mailing address: Unit 3450, APO AA 34023; 3450 San Salvador Place, Washington, DC 20521-3450

FAX: [503] 2501-2150

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of cobalt blue (top), white, and cobalt blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water, as well as peace and prosperity

note: similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

National symbol(s)

turquoise-browed motmot (bird); national colors: blue, white

National anthem


Economy :: El Salvador

Economy – overview

The smallest country in Central America geographically, El Salvador has the fourth largest economy in the region. With the global recession, real GDP contracted in 2009 and economic growth has since remained low, averaging less than 2% from 2010 to 2014, but recovered somewhat in 2015-17 with an average annual growth rate of 2.4%. Remittances accounted for approximately 18% of GDP in 2017 and were received by about a third of all households.

In 2006, El Salvador was the first country to ratify the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement, which has bolstered the export of processed foods, sugar, and ethanol, and supported investment in the apparel sector amid increased Asian competition. In September 2015, El Salvador kicked off a five-year $277 million second compact with the Millennium Challenge Corporation – a US Government agency aimed at stimulating economic growth and reducing poverty – to improve El Salvador’s competitiveness and productivity in international markets.

The Salvadoran Government maintained fiscal discipline during reconstruction and rebuilding following earthquakes in 2001 and hurricanes in 1998 and 2005, but El Salvador’s public debt, estimated at 59.3% of GDP in 2017, has been growing over the last several years.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$51.17 billion (2017 est.)
$50.01 billion (2016 est.)
$48.75 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$24.81 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

2.3% (2017 est.)
2.6% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$8,000 (2017 est.)
$7,900 (2016 est.)
$7,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

14.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
13% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 84.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 16.9% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 27.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 12% (2017 est.)

industry: 27.7% (2017 est.)

services: 60.3% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products


food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate

3.6% (2017 est.)

Labor force

2.774 million (2017 est.)

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 21%

industry: 20%

services: 58% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate

7% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)

note: data are official rates; but underemployment is high

Population below poverty line

32.7% (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2014 est.)


revenues: 5.886 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 6.517 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

23.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

67.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: El Salvador’s total public debt includes non-financial public sector debt, financial public sector debt, and central bank debt

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1% (2017 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

-$501 million (2017 est.)
-$500 million (2016 est.)


$4.662 billion (2017 est.)
$5.42 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

US 45.7%, Honduras 13.9%, Guatemala 13.5%, Nicaragua 6.7%, Costa Rica 4.6% (2017)

Exports – commodities

offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, textiles and apparel, ethanol, chemicals, electricity, iron and steel manufactures


$9.499 billion (2017 est.)
$8.954 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

Imports – partners

US 36.7%, Guatemala 10.5%, China 8.7%, Mexico 7.4%, Honduras 6.7% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.567 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.238 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$15.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$16.32 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

note: the US dollar is used as a medium of exchange and circulates freely in the economy
1 (2017 est.)

Energy :: El Salvador

Electricity access

population without electricity: 400,000 (2016)

electrification – total population: 98.6% (2016)
electrification – urban areas: 98.6% (2016)
electrification – rural areas: 98.8% (2016)

Electricity – production

5.83 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

5.928 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

89.6 million kWh (2017 est.)

Electricity – imports

1.066 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

1.983 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

49% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

52,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

347 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

49,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas – production

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

7.331 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: El Salvador

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 923,029

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 9,433,495

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 148 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: multiple mobile-cellular operators began rolling out Long Term Evolution (LTE) data services in late-2016; Internet usage grew almost 400% between 2007 and 2015; 6% of phones are fixed-line, while 94% are mobile-cellular; as of March 2019, the regulator launched a public dialog that allowed mobile network operators to improve the reach and quality of service; telecom legislation encourages competition and foreign investment; only 1 DSL market leader retaining a monopoly; govt. increases tax on telecom services to 18% (2020)

domestic: growth in fixed-line services 14 per 100, has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition at 148 per 100 (2019)

international: country code – 503; satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

multiple privately owned national terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by cable TV networks that carry international channels; hundreds of commercial radio broadcast stations and 1 government-owned radio broadcast station; transition to digital transmission to begin in 2018 along with adaptation of the Japanese-Brazilian Digital Standard (ISDB-T)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 2,153,776

percent of population: 33.82% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 492,265

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: El Salvador

Military and security forces

Armed Force of El Salvador (Fuerza Armada de El Salvador, FAES): Army of El Salvador (Ejercito de El Salvador, ES), Navy of El Salvador (Fuerza Naval de El Salvador, FNES), Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Salvadorena, FAS) (2020)

note: supporting the National Police (Ministry of Interior) in countering gang violence and drug trafficking is a primary mission for the FAES

Military expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2019)
1.03% of GDP (2018)
0.9% of GDP (2017)
0.92% of GDP (2016)
0.95% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Armed Force of El Salvador (FAES) has approximately 22,000 active troops (18,000 Army; 2,000 Navy; 2,000 Air Force) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAES is dependent on a mix of imported Cold War-era platforms, largely from the US; since 2000, the FAES has received limited amounts of equipment from Chile, Israel, and the US (2019 est.)

Military deployments

200 Mali (MINUSMA) (March 2020)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16-22 years of age for voluntary male or female service; service obligation is 12 months, with 11 months for officers and NCOs (2012)

Transportation :: El Salvador

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 32

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,597,649 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 13,873,884 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

YS (2016)


68 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 5 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)

under 914 m: 1 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 63 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)

under 914 m: 51 (2013)


2 (2013)


total: 13 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 12.5 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)


total: 9,012 km (2017)

paved: 5,341 km (2017)

unpaved: 3,671 km (2017)


(Rio Lempa River is partially navigable by small craft) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 2

by type: other 2 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Puerto Cutuco

oil terminal(s): Acajutla offshore terminal

Transnational Issues :: El Salvador

Disputes – international

International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of “bolsones” (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 71,500 (2018)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; significant use of cocaine

Source: https://www.cia.gov

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