Introduction :: Cyprus


A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority communities came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued, forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to overthrow the elected president of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot administered area declared itself the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (“TRNC”), but it is recognized only by Turkey. An UN-mediated agreement, the Annan Plan, failed to win approval by both communities in 2004. In February 2014, after a hiatus of nearly two years, the leaders of the two communities resumed formal discussions under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. The most recent round of negotiations to reunify the island were suspended in July 2017 after failure to achieve a breakthrough. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis – the body of common rights and obligations – applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the “TRNC.” However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of EU states.

Geography :: Cyprus


Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey; note – Cyprus views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both

Geographic coordinates

35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references

Middle East


total: 9,251 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)

land: 9,241 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 156 km

border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 48 km, Dhekelia 108 km


648 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters


central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast


mean elevation: 91 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources

copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use

agricultural land: 13.4% (2011 est.)

arable land: 9.8% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 3.2% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 0.4% (2011 est.)

forest: 18.8% (2011 est.)

other: 67.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

460 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

population concentrated in central Nicosia and in the major cities of the south: Paphos, Limassol, and Larnaca

Natural hazards

moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Environment – current issues

water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island’s largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage, industrial wastes, and pesticides; coastal degradation; erosion; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment – international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia); several small Cypriot enclaves exist within the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area

People and Society :: Cyprus


1,266,676 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups

Greek 98.8%, other 1% (includes Maronite, Armenian, Turkish-Cypriot), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the Greek-Cypriot citizens in the Republic of Cyprus


Greek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the Republic of Cyprus


Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite, Armenian Church, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the government-controlled area of Cyprus

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.9

youth dependency ratio: 24

elderly dependency ratio: 20.9

potential support ratio: 4.8 (2020 est.)

note: data represent the whole country

Median age

total: 37.9 years

male: 36.7 years

female: 39.4 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.15% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

10.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

7.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

population concentrated in central Nicosia and in the major cities of the south: Paphos, Limassol, and Larnaca


urban population: 66.8% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 0.75% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

269,000 NICOSIA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.2 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

28.8 years (2014 est.)

note: data represent only government-controlled areas

Maternal mortality rate

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.3 years

male: 76.4 years

female: 82.2 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.48 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

6.7% (2017)

Physicians density

1.95 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 98.4% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 1.6% of population

total: 1% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

<1000 (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<100 (2017 est.)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

21.8% (2016)

Education expenditures

6.4% of GDP (2015)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.5%

female: 98.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2015)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 20.2%

male: 25%

female: 16.2% (2018 est.)

People – note

demographic data for Cyprus represent the population of the government-controlled area and the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, unless otherwise indicated

Government :: Cyprus

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Kypros/Kibris

etymology: the derivation of the name “Cyprus” is unknown, but the extensive mining of copper metal on the island in antiquity gave rise to the Latin word “cuprum” for copper

note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” or “TRNC” (“Kuzey Kibris Turk Cumhuriyeti” or “KKTC”)

Government type

Republic of Cyprus – presidential republic; “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (self-declared) – parliamentary republic with enhanced presidency

note: a separation of the two main ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified when a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt prompted the Turkish military intervention in July 1974 that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government on the island; on 15 November 1983, then Turkish Cypriot “President” Rauf DENKTAS declared independence and the formation of the “TRNC, which is recognized only by Turkey


name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)

geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: a mispronunciation of the city’s Greek name Lefkosia and its Turkish name Lefkosa, both of which mean “White City”; the Greek name may derive from the Greek phrase “leuke ousia” (“white estate”)

Administrative divisions

6 districts; Ammochostos (Famagusta); (all but a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Keryneia (Kyrenia; the only district located entirely in the Turkish Cypriot community), Larnaka (Larnaca; with a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Lefkosia (Nicosia; a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Lemesos (Limassol), Pafos (Paphos); note – the 5 “districts” of the “TRNC” are Gazimagusa (Famagusta), Girne (Kyrenia), Guzelyurt (Morphou), Iskele (Trikomo), Lefkosa (Nicosia)


16 August 1960 (from the UK); note – Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are recognized only by Turkey

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note – Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as “Republic Day”


history: ratified 16 August 1960; note – in 1963, the constitution was partly suspended as Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the government; Turkish-held territory in 1983 was declared the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (“TRNC”); in 1985, the “TRNC” approved its own constitution

amendments: constitution of the Republic of Cyprus – proposed by the House of Representatives; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership of the “Greek Community” and the “Turkish Community”; however, all seats of Turkish Cypriot members have remained vacant since 1964; amended 10 times, last in 2016

constitution of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus – proposed by at least 10 members of the “Assembly of the Republic”; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership and approval by referendum; amended 2014

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and civil law with European law supremacy

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICC jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note – vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot, but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government

head of government: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note – under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 28 January 2018 with a runoff on 4 February 2018 (next to be held in February 2023)
election results: Nikos ANASTASIADIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round – Nikos ANASTASIADIS (DISY) 35.5%, Stavros MALAS (AKEL) 30.2%, Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS (DIKO) 25.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in second round – Nikos ANASTASIADIS 56%, Savros MALAS 44%

note: the first round of the TRNC presidential election, originally scheduled for 26 April 2020, was postponed to 11 October 202 due to the COVID-19 pandemic; results – Ersin TATAR (UBP) 32.4%, Mustafa AKINCI (independent) 29.8%, Tufan ERHURMAN (RTP) 21.7%, Kudret OZERSAY (independent) 5.7%, Erhan ARIKLI (YDP) 5.4%, Serdar DENKTAS (independent) 4.2%, other 0.8%; the second round to be held on 18 October

Legislative branch

description:** area under government control:** unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral “Assembly of the Republic” or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected to 5-year terms by proportional representation system using a hybrid d’Hondt method with voter preferences for individual candidates

elections:** area under government control:** last held on 22 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2021); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held on 7 January 2018 (next to be held in 2023, unless early election called)

election results:** area under government control:** House of Representatives – percent of vote by party – DISY 30.7%, AKEL 25.7%, DIKO 14.5%, KS-EDEK 6.2%, SP 6% Solidarity Movement 5.2%, other 11.7%; seats by party – DISY 18, AKEL 16, DIKO 9, KS-EDEK 3, Citizen’s Alliance 3 (2 left the party in 2017 and 2018 due to disagreements over the party’s policy regarding the presidential election campaign; one joined DIKO and the other became an independent MP), Solidarity Movement 3, other 4; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: “Assembly of the Republic” – percent of vote by party – UBP 35.6%, CTP 20.9%, HP 17.1%, TDP 8.6%, DP 7.8%, YDP 7%, 3%; seats by party – UBP 21, CTP 12, HP 9, DP 3, TDP 3, YDP 2

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Cyprus (consists of 13 judges, including the court president); note – the highest court in the “TRNC” is the “Supreme Court” (consists of 8 “judges,” including the “court president”)

judge selection and term of office: Republic of Cyprus Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Supreme Court judges; judges can serve until age 68; “TRNC Supreme Court” judges appointed by the “Supreme Council of Judicature,” a 12-member body of judges, the attorney general, appointees by the president of the “TRNC,” and by the “Legislative Assembly,” and members elected by the bar association; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Republic of Cyprus district courts; Assize Courts; Administrative Court; specialized courts for issues relating to family, industrial disputes, the military, and rent control; “TRNC Assize Courts”; “district and family courts”

Political parties and leaders

area under government control:
Citizens’ Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS]
Democratic Party or DIKO [Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS]
Democratic Rally or DISY [Averof NEOPHYTOU]
Movement of Ecologists and Environmentalists or KOP (Green party) [Giorgos PERDIKIS]
I, the Citizen or EOP [Georgios KOUNTOURIS]
Movement of Social Democrats EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS]
National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU]
Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist party) [Andros KYPRIANOU]
Solidarity Movement [Eleni THEOCHAROUS]
United Democrats or EDI [Praxoula ANTONIADOU]
Democratic Front or DIPA [Marios GAROYIAN]
Animal Party Cyprus or APC [Kyriacos KYRIACOU]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots:
Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Cemal OZYIGIT]
Communal Liberation Party-New Forces or TKP-YG [Mehmet CAKICI]
Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Mehmet BIRINCI]
Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTAS]
National Democratic Party or NDP [Buray BUSKUVUTCU]
National Unity Party or UBP [Ersin TATAR]
New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]
People’s Party or HP [Kudret OZERSAY]
Rebirth Party or YDP [Erhan ARIKLI]
Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Tufan ERHURMAN]
United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Marios LYSIOTIS (since 17 September 2018)
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: 1 462-5772, 462-0873

FAX: 1 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York

note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Mustafa LAKADAMYALI; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone 1 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Judith Gail GARBER (since 18 March 2019)

telephone: 357 393939

embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, 2407 Engomi, Nicosia

mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nicosia

FAX: 357 393344

Flag description

centered on a white field is a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the island has long been famous for its copper deposits) above two olive-green-colored, crossed olive branches; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Kosovo is the other

note: the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” flag retains the white field of the Cyprus national flag but displays narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which are centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star; the banner is modeled after the Turkish national flag but with the colors reversed

National symbol(s)

Cypriot mouflon (wild sheep), white dove; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: “Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian” (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1960; Cyprus adopted the Greek national anthem as its own; the Turkish Cypriot community in Cyprus uses the anthem of Turkey

Economy :: Cyprus

Economy – overview

The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by a services sector that accounts for more than four-fifths of GDP. Tourism, finance, shipping, and real estate have traditionally been the most important services. Cyprus has been a member of the EU since May 2004 and adopted the euro as its national currency in January 2008.

During the first five years of EU membership, the Cyprus economy grew at an average rate of about 4%, with unemployment between 2004 and 2008 averaging about 4%. However, the economy tipped into recession in 2009 as the ongoing global financial crisis and resulting low demand hit the tourism and construction sectors. An overextended banking sector with excessive exposure to Greek debt added to the contraction. Cyprus biggest two banks were among the largest holders of Greek bonds in Europe and had a substantial presence in Greece through bank branches and subsidiaries. Following numerous downgrades of its credit rating, Cyprus lost access to international capital markets in May 2011. In July 2012, Cyprus became the fifth euro-zone government to request an economic bailout program from the European Commission, European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund – known collectively as the “Troika.”
Shortly after the election of President Nikos ANASTASIADES in February 2013, Cyprus reached an agreement with the Troika on a $13 billion bailout that triggered a two-week bank closure and the imposition of capital controls that remained partially in place until April 2015. Cyprus’ two largest banks merged and the combined entity was recapitalized through conversion of some large bank deposits to shares and imposition of losses on bank bondholders. As with other EU countries, the Troika conditioned the bailout on passing financial and structural reforms and privatizing state-owned enterprises. Despite downsizing and restructuring, the Cypriot financial sector remains burdened by the largest stock of non-performing loans in the euro zone, equal to nearly half of all loans. Since the bailout, Cyprus has received positive appraisals by the Troika and outperformed fiscal targets but has struggled to overcome political opposition to bailout-mandated legislation, particularly regarding privatizations. The rate of non-performing loans (NPLs) is still very high at around 49%, and growth would accelerate if Cypriot banks could increase the pace of resolution of the NPLs.

In October 2013, a US-Israeli consortium completed preliminary appraisals of hydrocarbon deposits in Cyprus exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which estimated gross mean reserves of about 130 billion cubic meters. Though exploration continues in Cyprus EEZ, no additional commercially exploitable reserves have been identified. Developing offshore hydrocarbon resources remains a critical component of the governments economic recovery efforts, but development has been delayed as a result of regional developments and disagreements about exploitation methods.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$31.78 billion (2017 est.)
$30.59 billion (2016 est.)
$29.58 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$21.7 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

3.9% (2017 est.)
3.4% (2016 est.)
2% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$37,200 (2017 est.)
$36,100 (2016 est.)
$34,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

13.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
11.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 63.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67.8% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2% (2017 est.)

industry: 12.5% (2017 est.)

services: 85.5% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese


tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products

Industrial production growth rate

13.4% (2017 est.)

Labor force

426,600 (2017 est.)

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 3.8%

industry: 15.2%

services: 81% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate

11.1% (2017 est.)
13% (2016 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 28.8% (2014)


revenues: 8.663 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 8.275 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

39.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

97.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
106.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.7% (2017 est.)
-1.2% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

-$1.458 billion (2017 est.)
-$984 million (2016 est.)


$2.805 billion (2017 est.)
$2.7 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

Libya 9.4%, Greece 7.7%, Norway 6.7%, UK 5.3%, Germany 4.1% (2017)

Exports – commodities

citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing


$7.935 billion (2017 est.)
$7.153 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, machinery, transport equipment

Imports – partners

Greece 19%, Italy 7.5%, China 7.4%, South Korea 7.3%, Germany 7%, Netherlands 5.1%, UK 5%, Israel 4.1% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$888.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$817.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$95.28 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$103.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar –
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Cyprus

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

4.618 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

4.355 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

0 kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – imports

0 kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

1.77 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

85% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

15% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

49,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

49,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas – production

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

141.6 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

7.72 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Cyprus

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 311,559

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,200,378

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 97 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: broadband market steadily developing with one of the highest penetrations rates in the region; despite the growth of Cyprus’s telecom sector, the market overall continues to be dominated by the incumbent, Cyprus Telecommunications Authority (CyTA), which is still fully-owned by the state, but it is losing ground to its competition annually; improved regulatory circumstances, especially in relation to network interconnection and access, has given competing operators the certainty to invest in network infrastructure, and to launch competing services; fiber infrastructure in the early days and DSL remains the dominate access platform (2020)

domestic: fixed-line is 25 per 100, and 97 per 100 for mobile-cellular; open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay (2018)

international: country code – 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey – 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, CADMOS, MedNautilus Submarine System, POSEIDON, TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medes, UGARIT, Aphrodite2, Hawk, Lev Submarine System, and Tamares combine to provide connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Southeast Asia; Turcyos-1 and Turcyos-2 submarine cable in Turkish North Cyprus link to Turkey; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations – 8 (3 Intelsat – 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

mixture of state and privately run TV and radio services; the public broadcaster operates 2 TV channels and 4 radio stations; 6 private TV broadcasters, satellite and cable TV services including telecasts from Greece and Turkey, and a number of private radio stations are available; in areas administered by Turkish Cypriots, there are 2 public TV stations, 4 public radio stations, and 7 privately owned TV and 21 radio broadcast stations plus 6 radio and 4 TV channels of local universities, plus 1 radio station of military, security forces and 1 radio station of civil defense cooperation, as well as relay stations from Turkey (2019)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 1,044,473

percent of population: 84.43% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 313,462

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Cyprus

Military and security forces

Republic of Cyprus: Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Froura, EF, includes Army Land Forces, Naval Command, Air Command) (2020)

Military expenditures

1.6% of GDP (2019)
1.8% of GDP (2018)
1.6% of GDP (2017)
1.4% of GDP (2016)
1.7% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Cypriot National Guard has approximately 13-15,000 total active duty personnel (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Cypriot National Guard is a mix of Soviet-era and some more modern weapons systems; since 2010, it has received equipment from France, Israel, Italy, Oman, and Russia (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation

Cypriot National Guard (CNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 12-month service obligation (2019)

Military – note

the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNICYP) was set up in 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities on the island and bring about a return to normal conditions; as of March 2020, the UNICYP mission consisted of about 830 personnel (2020)

Transportation :: Cyprus

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 401,408 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 20,000 mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

5B (2016)


15 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 13 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2017)

under 914 m: 1 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 2 (2013)

under 914 m: 2 (2013)


9 (2013)


0 km oil


total: 19,901 km (2016)

government control: 12,901 km (includes 272 km of expressways) (2016)

paved: 8,631 km (2016)

unpaved: 4,270 km (2016)

Turkish Cypriot control: 7,000 km (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 1,039

by type: bulk carrier 304, container ship 190, general cargo 183, oil tanker 42, other 320 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s):** area under government control:** Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia

Transnational Issues :: Cyprus

Disputes – international

hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the EU still divided, with the EU’s body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; Turkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in March 2007

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,259 (Syria) (2018)

IDPs: 228,000 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced since 1974) (2019)

note: 10,690 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-November 2019)

Illicit drugs

minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; despite a strengthening of anti-money-laundering legislation, remains vulnerable to money laundering; reporting of suspicious transactions in offshore sector remains weak


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