Introduction :: Croatia


The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state consisting of six socialist republics under the strong hand of Marshal Josip Broz, aka TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Yugoslav forces, dominated by Serb officers, were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia’s ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.

Geography :: Croatia


Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references



total: 56,594 sq km

land: 55,974 sq km

water: 620 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,237 km

border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km


5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast


geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands


mean elevation: 331 m

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Dinara 1,831 m

Natural resources

oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 23.7% (2011 est.)

arable land: 16% (2011 est.) /** permanent crops:** 1.5% (2011 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 6.2% (2011 est.)

forest: 34.4% (2011 est.)

other: 41.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

240 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment – current issues

air pollution improving but still a concern in urban settings and in emissions arriving from neighboring countries; surface water pollution in the Danube River Basin

Environment – international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia – some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

People and Society :: Croatia


4,227,746 (July 2020 est.)


noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)

adjective: Croatian

note: the French designation of “Croate” to Croatian mercenaries in the 17th century eventually became “Cravate” and later came to be applied to the soldiers’ scarves – the cravat; Croatia celebrates Cravat Day every 18 October

Ethnic groups

Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)


Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)


Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)

Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.7

youth dependency ratio: 22.6

elderly dependency ratio: 33.1

potential support ratio: 3 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 43.9 years

male: 42 years

female: 45.9 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.5% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

8.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

-1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated


urban population: 57.6% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: -0.08% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas – population

685,000 ZAGREB (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth

28 years (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.7 years

male: 73.6 years

female: 80.1 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.42 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Drinking water source

improved:** urban:** 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

6.8% (2017)

Physicians density

3 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

5.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** urban:** 99.5% of population

rural: 98.4% of population

total: 99% of population

unimproved:** urban:** 0.5% of population

rural: 1.6% of population

total: 1% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

<.1% (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

1,600 (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<100 (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2020)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

24.4% (2016)

Education expenditures

4.6% of GDP (2013)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.3%

male: 99.7%

female: 98.9% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 14 years

female: 16 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 23.7%

male: 19.6%

female: 29.4% (2018 est.)

Government :: Croatia

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Croatia

conventional short form: Croatia

local long form: Republika Hrvatska

local short form: Hrvatska

former: People’s Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia

etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Zagreb

geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name seems to be related to “digging”; archeologists suggest that the original settlement was established beyond a water-filled hole or “graba” and that the name derives from this; “za” in Slavic means “beyond”; the overall meaning may be “beyond the trench (fault, channel, ditch)”

Administrative divisions

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija – singular) and 1 city* (grad – singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska (Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)


25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia); notable earlier dates: ca. 925 (Kingdom of Croatia established); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)

National holiday

Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note – 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia


history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990

amendments: proposed by at least one fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014

Legal system

civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note – Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Zoran MILANOVIC (since 18 February 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Damir KRSTICEVIC (since 19 October 2016), Predrag STROMAR (since 9 June 2017), Marija Pejcinovic BURIC (since 19 June 2017), and Tomislav TOLUSIC (since 25 May 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 December 2019 with a runoff on 5 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
election results: Zoran MILANOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote – Zoran MILANOVIC (SDP) 52.7%, Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 47.3%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D’Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms

elections: early election held on 5 July 2020 (next to be held by 2024)

election results: percent of vote by coalition/party – HDZ-led coalition 37.3%, Restart coalition 24.9%, DPMS-led coalition 10.9%, MOST 7.4%, Green-Left coalition 7%, P-F-SSIP 4%, HNS-LD 1.3%, People’s Party – Reformists 1%, other 6.2%; number of seats by coalition/party – HDZ-led coalition 66, Restart coalition 41, DPMS-led coalition 16, MOST 8, Green-Left coalition 7, P-F-SSIP 3, HNS-LD 1, People’s Party – Reformists – 1, national minorities 8; composition – men 116, women 35, percent of women 23.2%

note: seats by party as of June 2019 – HDZ 55, SDP 29, MOST-NL 10, HNS 4, HSS 4, GLAS 4, IDS 3, SDSS 3, BM365-SRS 3, Human Shield 2, HDS 2, NHR 2, other 8, independent 21

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)

judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by the president of Croatia and elected by the Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by the National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note – there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside of the judicial system

Political parties and leaders

Bloc for Croatia or BZH [Zlatko HASANBEGOVIC]
Bridge of Independent Lists or Most [Bozo PETROV]
Civic Liberal Alliance or GLAS [Ankar Mrak TARITAS]
Croatian Christian Democratic Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
Croatian Conservative Party or HKS [Marijan PAVLICEK]
Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Branimir GLAVAS]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union-led coalition (includes HSLS, HDS, HDSSB)
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
Croatian People’s Party – Liberal Democrats or HNS-LD [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Dario HREBAK]
Croatian Sovereignists coalition (includes HK, HRAST)
Green-Left coalition (includes MOZEMO!, RF, NL)
Homeland Movement or DPMS [Miloslav SKORO]
Homeland Movement-led coalition (includes DPMS, Croatian Sovereignists coalition, BZH)
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
Movement for Successful Croatia or HRAST [Ladislav ILCIC]
New Left or NL [Dragan MARKOVINA]
Pametno [Marijana PULJAK]
Pametno, FOKUS, SSIP coalition
Party with a First and Last Name or SSIP [Ivan KOVACIC]
People’s Party – Reformists [Radimir CACIC]
Restart Coalition (includes HSLS, HDS, HDSSB)
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zlatko KOMADINA, acting leader]
We Can! or MOZEMO! [collective leadership]
Workers’ Front or RF [collective leadership]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Pjer SIMUNOVIC (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: 1 588-5899

FAX: 1 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador W. Robert KOHORST (since 12 January 2018)

telephone: 385 661-2200

embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb

mailing address: use embassy street address

FAX: 385 661-2373

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue – the Pan-Slav colors – superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem


Economy :: Croatia

Economy – overview

Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatias economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country’s output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia’s economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6%, led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable.

Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year between 2009 and 2014, but has picked up since the third quarter of 2014, ending 2017 with an average of 2.8% growth. Challenges remain including uneven regional development, a difficult investment climate, an inefficient judiciary, and loss of educated young professionals seeking higher salaries elsewhere in the EU. In 2016, Croatia revised its tax code to stimulate growth from domestic consumption and foreign investment. Income tax reduction began in 2017, and in 2018 various business costs were removed from income tax calculations. At the start of 2018, the government announced its economic reform plan, slated for implementation in 2019.

Tourism is one of the main pillars of the Croatian economy, comprising 19.6% of Croatias GDP. Croatia is working to become a regional energy hub, and is undertaking plans to open a floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal by the end of 2019 or early in 2020 to import LNG for re-distribution in southeast Europe.

Croatia joined the EU on July 1, 2013, following a decade-long accession process. Croatia has developed a plan for Eurozone accession, and the government projects Croatia will adopt the Euro by 2024. In 2017, the Croatian government decreased public debt to 78% of GDP, from an all-time high of 84% in 2014, and realized a 0.8% budget surplus – the first surplus since independence in 1991. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets with mixed success. Croatias economic recovery is still somewhat fragile; Croatias largest private company narrowly avoided collapse in 2017, thanks to a capital infusion from an American investor. Restructuring is ongoing, and projected to finish by mid-July 2018.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$102.1 billion (2017 est.)
$99.37 billion (2016 est.)
$95.97 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$54.76 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

2.8% (2017 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$24,700 (2017 est.)
$23,800 (2016 est.)
$22,800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

24.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
23.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 51.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -48.8% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 26.2% (2017 est.)

services: 70.1% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products


chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

1.2% (2017 est.)

Labor force

1.559 million (2017 est.)

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 1.9%

industry: 27.3%

services: 70.8% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate

12.4% (2017 est.)
15% (2016 est.)

Population below poverty line

19.5% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 23% (2015 est.)


revenues: 25.24 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 24.83 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

46.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

77.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
82.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.1% (2017 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

$2.15 billion (2017 est.)
$1.338 billion (2016 est.)


$13.15 billion (2017 est.)
$13.88 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

Italy 13.4%, Germany 12.2%, Slovenia 10.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.8%, Austria 6.2%, Serbia 4.8% (2017)

Exports – commodities

transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels


$22.34 billion (2017 est.)
$19.76 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs

Imports – partners

Germany 15.7%, Italy 12.9%, Slovenia 10.7%, Hungary 7.5%, Austria 7.5% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$18.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$14.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$48.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$46.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

kuna (HRK) per US dollar –
6.62 (2017 est.)
6.8 (2016 est.)
6.806 (2015 est.)
6.8583 (2014 est.)
5.7482 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Croatia

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

12.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

15.93 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

3.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – imports

8.702 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

4.921 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

45% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

40% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

14,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – imports

55,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

71 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

74,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

73,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

40,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

35,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas – production

1.048 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

2.577 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

172.7 million cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

1.841 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

17.96 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Croatia

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,355,662

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 4,388,476

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 103 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the mobile market has one of the highest penetration rates in the Balkans region; covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital; telecom market in Croatia has been shaped by Croatia becoming part of the European Union in 2013, a process which opened up the market and the creation of a regulatory environment leading to competition in mobile and broadband; investment among operators has led to a relatively high broadband penetration in the region; trials for 5G technologies underway (2020)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity has dropped somewhat to about 32 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions 103 per 100 (2018)

international: country code – 385; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; 29 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 4 national radio networks and 23 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and 117 local radio stations (2019)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 3,104,212

percent of population: 72.69% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 1,127,591

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Croatia

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM, includes Coast Guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2019)

Military expenditures

1.68% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.59% of GDP (2018)
1.67% of GDP (2017)
1.62% of GDP (2016)
1.78% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia have approximately 15,000 active duty personnel (10,000 Army; 1,500 Navy; 1,500 Air force; 2,000 other) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Croatian Armed Forces consists mostly of Soviet-era equipment, although in recent years, it has attempted to acquire more modern weapon systems from Western suppliers; since 2010, the leading suppliers of military equipment to Croatia are Finland, Germany, and the US (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2017)

Transportation :: Croatia

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 46 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,782,666 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 775,320 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

9A (2016)


69 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 24 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2017)

under 914 m: 10 (2017)

Airports – with unpaved runways

total: 45 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)

under 914 m: 38 (2013)


1 (2013)


2410 km gas, 610 km oil (2011)


total: 2,722 km (2014)

standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (980 km electrified) (2014)


total: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)


785 km (2009)

Merchant marine

total: 336

by type: bulk carrier 15, general cargo 32, oil tanker 20, other 269 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split

oil terminal(s): Omisalj

river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)

Transnational Issues :: Croatia

Disputes – international

dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia’s claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 2,886 (2018)

note: 705,685 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2020); flows slowed considerably in 2017; Croatia is predominantly a transit country and hosts about 340 asylum seekers as of the end of June 2018

Illicit drugs

primarily a transit country along the Balkan route for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe and other illicit drugs and chemical precursors to and from Western Europe; no significant domestic production of illicit drugs


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