Introduction :: Bahrain


In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. A steady decline in oil production and reserves since 1970 prompted Bahrain to take steps to diversify its economy, in the process developing petroleum processing and refining, aluminum production, and hospitality and retail sectors. It has also endeavored to become a leading regional banking center, especially with respect to Islamic finance. Bahrain’s small size, central location among Gulf countries, economic dependence on Saudi Arabia, and proximity to Iran require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Its foreign policy activities usually fall in line with Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

The Sunni royal family has long struggled to manage relations with its large Shia-majority population. In early 2011, amid Arab uprisings elsewhere in the region, the Bahraini Government confronted similar pro-democracy and reform protests at home with police and military action, including deploying Gulf Cooperation Council security forces to Bahrain. Failed political talks prompted opposition political societies to boycott 2014 legislative and municipal council elections. In 2018, a law preventing members of political societies dissolved by the courts from participating in elections effectively sidelined the majority of opposition figures from taking part in national elections. As a result, most members of parliament are independents. Ongoing dissatisfaction with the political status quo continues to factor into sporadic clashes between demonstrators and security forces. On 15 September 2020, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates signed a peace accord with Israel brokered by the US in Washington DC. Referred to as the Abraham Accords, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates are the two latest Middle Eastern countries, along with Egypt and Jordan, to recognize Israel.

Geography :: Bahrain


Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references

Middle East


total: 760 sq km

land: 760 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area – comparative

Area comparison map

Land boundaries

0 km


161 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers


mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment


lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 135 m

Natural resources

oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use

agricultural land: 11.3% (2016 est.)

arable land: 2.1% (2016 est.) /** permanent crops:** 3.9% (2016 est.) /** permanent pasture:** 5.3% (2016 est.)

forest: 0.7% (2016 est.)

other: 88% (2016 est.)

Irrigated land

40 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment – current issues

desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs); lowered water table leaves aquifers vulnerable to saline contamination; desalinization provides some 90% of the country’s freshwater

Environment – international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note

close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world’s petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

People and Society :: Bahrain


1,505,003 (July 2020 est.)

note: immigrants make up approximately 48% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)


noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups

Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arab 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)


Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu



Age structure

population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 26.5

youth dependency ratio: 23.1

elderly dependency ratio: 3.4

potential support ratio: 29.8 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 32.9 years

male: 34.4 years

female: 30.3 years (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

2.08% (2020 est.)

Birth rate

12.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Death rate

2.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Net migration rate

10.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

Population distribution

smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq



Major urban areas – population

635,000 MANAMA (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.31 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.67 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female

total population: 1.53 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

14 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.4 years

male: 77.1 years

female: 81.8 years (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.69 children born/woman (2020 est.)

Drinking water source

improved:** total:** 100% of population

unimproved:** total:** 0% of population (2017 est.)

Current Health Expenditure

4.7% (2017)

Physicians density

0.93 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved:** total:** 100% of population

unimproved:** total:** 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate

<.1% (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS

<500 (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths

<100 (2017 est.)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate

29.8% (2016)

Education expenditures

2.3% of GDP (2017)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.5%

male: 99.9%

female: 94.9% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2017)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 5.3%

male: 2.6%

female: 12.2% (2012 est.)

Government :: Bahrain

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun, Tylos, Awal, Mishmahig, Bahrayn, State of Bahrain

etymology: the name means “the two seas” in Arabic and refers to the water bodies surrounding the archipelago

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Manama

geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the Arabic “al-manama” meaning “place of rest” or “place of dreams”

Administrative divisions

4 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazah); Asimah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern)

note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor


15 August 1971 (from the UK)

National holiday

National Day, 16 December (1971); note – 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection


history: adopted 14 February 2002

amendments: proposed by the king or by at least 15 members of either chamber of the National Assembly followed by submission to an Assembly committee for review and, if approved, submitted to the government for restatement as drafts; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both chambers and validation by the king; constitutional articles on the state religion (Islam), state language (Arabic), and the monarchy and “inherited rule” cannot be amended; amended 2012, 2017

Legal system

mixed legal system of Islamic (sharia) law, English common law, Egyptian civil, criminal, and commercial codes; customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals


20 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); First Deputy Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al- Khalifa (since 11 March 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa (since September 2005), Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 11 December 2006), KHALID bin Abdallah Al-Khalifa (since November 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:

Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
Council of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)
Consultative Council – last appointments on 12 December 2018 (next NA)
Council of Representatives – first round for 9 members held on 24 November 2018; second round for remaining 31 members held on 1 December 2018 (next to be held in 2022)
election results:
Consultative Council – composition – men 31, women 9, percent of women 22.5%
Council of Representatives (for 2018 election) – percent of vote by society – NA; seats by society – Islamic Al-Asalah (Sunni Salafi) 3, Minbar al-Taqadumi (Communist) 2, National Unity Gathering (Sunni progovernment) 1, National Islamic Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 1, independent 33; composition – men 34, women 6, percent of women 15%; note – total National Assembly percent of women 19%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Court of Cassation (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the president and 6 members); High Sharia Court of Appeal (court sittings include the president and at least one judge)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure; Constitutional Court president and members appointed by the Higher Judicial Council, a body chaired by the monarch and includes judges from the Court of Cassation, sharia law courts, and Civil High Courts of Appeal; members serve 9-year terms; High Sharia Court of Appeal member appointments by royal decree for a specified tenure

subordinate courts: Civil High Courts of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; High Sharia Court of Appeal; Senior Sharia Court; Administrative Courts of Appeal; military courts

note: the judiciary of Bahrain is divided into civil law courts and sharia law courts; sharia courts (involving personal status and family law) are further divided into Sunni Muslim and Shia Muslim; the Courts are supervised by the Supreme Judicial Council.

Political parties and leaders

note: political parties are prohibited, but political societies were legalized under a July 2005 law

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

Ambassador Abdulla bin Rashid AL KHALIFA (since 21 July 2017)
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: 1 342-1111

FAX: 1 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Justin H. SIBERELL (since November 2017)

telephone: [973] 1724-2700

embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama

mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100

international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

FAX: [973] 1727-2594

Flag description

red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

note: until 2002, the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag

National symbol(s)

a red field surmounted by a white serrated band with five white points; national colors: red, white

National anthem


Economy :: Bahrain

Economy – overview

Oil and natural gas play a dominant role in Bahrains economy. Despite the Governments past efforts to diversify the economy, oil still comprises 85% of Bahraini budget revenues. In the last few years lower world energy prices have generated sizable budget deficits – about 10% of GDP in 2017 alone. Bahrain has few options for covering these deficits, with low foreign assets and fewer oil resources compared to its GCC neighbors. The three major US credit agencies downgraded Bahrains sovereign debt rating to “junk” status in 2016, citing persistently low oil prices and the governments high debt levels. Nevertheless, Bahrain was able to raise about $4 billion by issuing foreign currency denominated debt in 2017.

Other major economic activities are production of aluminum – Bahrain’s second biggest export after oil and gas finance, and construction. Bahrain continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. In April 2018 Bahrain announced it had found a significant oil field off the countrys west coast, but is still assessing how much of the oil can be extracted profitably.

In addition to addressing its current fiscal woes, Bahraini authorities face the long-term challenge of boosting Bahrains regional competitiveness especially regarding industry, finance, and tourism and reconciling revenue constraints with popular pressure to maintain generous state subsidies and a large public sector. Since 2015, the government lifted subsidies on meat, diesel, kerosene, and gasoline and has begun to phase in higher prices for electricity and water. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. It plans to introduce a Value Added Tax (VAT) by the end of 2018.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$71.17 billion (2017 est.)
$68.59 billion (2016 est.)
$66.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$35.33 billion (2017 est.)

GDP – real growth rate

3.8% (2017 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP)

$49,000 (2017 est.)
$48,200 (2016 est.)
$48,400 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

Gross national saving

19.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
22% of GDP (2015 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use

household consumption: 45.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 26.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 80.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67.9% (2017 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 39.3% (2017 est.)

services: 60.4% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products

fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish


petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

0.6% (2017 est.)

Labor force

831,600 (2017 est.)

note: excludes unemployed; 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national

Labor force – by occupation

agriculture: 1%

industry: 32%

services: 67% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.6% (2017 est.)
3.7% (2016 est.)

note: official estimate; actual rate is higher

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA


revenues: 5.854 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 9.407 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-10.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Public debt

88.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
81.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.4% (2017 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

-$1.6 billion (2017 est.)
-$1.493 billion (2016 est.)


$15.38 billion (2017 est.)
$12.78 billion (2016 est.)

Exports – partners

UAE 19.6%, Saudi Arabia 11.7%, US 10.8%, Oman 8.1%, China 6.5%, Qatar 5.7%, Japan 4.2% (2017)

Exports – commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles


$16.08 billion (2017 est.)
$13.59 billion (2016 est.)

Imports – commodities

crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports – partners

China 8.8%, UAE 7.2%, US 7.1%, Australia 5.3%, Japan 4.8% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.349 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$3.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Debt – external

$52.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$42.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Exchange rates

Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar –
0.376 (2017 est.)
0.376 (2016 est.)
0.376 (2015 est.)
0.376 (2014 est.)
0.376 (2013 est.)

Energy :: Bahrain

Electricity access

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity – production

26.81 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – consumption

26.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – exports

213 million kWh (2015 est.)

Electricity – imports

276 million kWh (2016 est.)

Electricity – installed generating capacity

3.928 million kW (2016 est.)

Electricity – from fossil fuels

100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

Electricity – from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Electricity – from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

Crude oil – production

40,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

Crude oil – exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – imports

226,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil – proved reserves

124.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

Refined petroleum products – production

274,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – consumption

61,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

Refined petroleum products – exports

245,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products – imports

14,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas – production

15.89 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – consumption

15.89 billion cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)

Natural gas – proved reserves

92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

37.98 million Mt (2017 est.)

Communications :: Bahrain

Telephones – fixed lines

total subscriptions: 274,733

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2018 est.)

Telephones – mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 2,092,714

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (2018 est.)

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: well-developed LTE networks, 5G trials tested and deployment in the near future; mobile penetration is high compared to the region; development of its own national broadband network; competition is good and telecoms are regulated; telecom contributes 4% to the GDP (2020)

domestic: 19 per 100 fixed-line, 145 per 100 mobile-cellular; modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly expanding mobile-cellular telephones (2018)

international: country code – 973; landing points for the FALCON, Tata TGN-Gulf, GBICS/MENA, and FOG submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Africa; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station – 1 (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated

Broadcast media

state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2019)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 1,423,039

percent of population: 98.64% (July 2018 est.)

Broadband – fixed subscriptions

total: 184,603

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2018 est.)

Military and Security :: Bahrain

Military and security forces

Bahrain Defense Force (BDF): Royal Bahraini Army (includes the Royal Guard), Royal Bahraini Navy, Royal Bahraini Air Force, Royal Bahraini Air Defense Force; Ministry of Interior security forces: National Guard, Special Security Forces Command (SSFC), Coast Guard

note: the Royal Guard is officially under the command of the Army, but exercises considerable autonomy

Military expenditures

3.7% of GDP (2019)
4.1% of GDP (2018)
4.3% of GDP (2017)
4.7% of GDP (2016)
4.6% of GDP (2015)

Military and security service personnel strengths

size assessments for the Bahrain Defense Force vary; approximately 10,000 active personnel (7,500 Army; 1,000 Navy; 1,500 Air Force); est. 2,500 National Guard
(2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Bahrain Defense force is comprised mostly of equipment acquired from the US along with a smaller quantity of material from European suppliers; since 2010, Turkey and the US are the leading suppliers of arms to Bahrain (2019 est.)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2012)

Transportation :: Bahrain

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 42

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,877,003 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 420.98 million mt-km (2018)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

A9C (2016)


4 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways

total: 4 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)


1 (2013)


20 km gas, 54 km oil (2013)


total: 4,122 km (2010)

paved: 3,392 km (2010)

unpaved: 730 km (2010)

Merchant marine

total: 261

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 1, general cargo 11, oil tanker 4, other 244 (2019)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Mina’ Salman, Sitrah

Terrorism :: Bahrain

Terrorist groups – foreign based

Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps — Qods Force (IRGC-QF): aim(s): seeks to overthrow the Sunni al-Khalifa ruling family, and to expel Americas military presence; supports anti-government insurgent groups with funding, weapons, and training

area(s) of operation: Bahrain

Transnational Issues :: Bahrain

Disputes – international



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